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Trial record 1 of 1 for:    NCT00098020
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Podocyte Retinoids

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00098020
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 2, 2004
Results First Posted : December 13, 2017
Last Update Posted : December 13, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) )

Brief Summary:
This is a pilot study of retinoids for patients with unsatisfactory response to conventional treatment of nephrotic syndrome due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change disease, two renal disorders associated with putatively pathogenic malfunctioning of glomerular podocytes. The hypothesis that retinoids may have reparative effects on these cells is based on previous research showing that retinoids promote the differentiation or redifferentiation of aberrant epithelial cells. Results obtained by 6 months of treatment with retinoids (that have been approved for non-renal indications) will be used as preliminary information upon which to base further testing of these agents in formal clinical trials in refractory cases of these nephrotic syndromes.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Collapsing Glomerulopathy Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental Drug: Isotretinoin Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Retinoids are analogues of vitamin A that regulate cellular differentiation, leading to therapeutic use in skin diseases and malignancy. In animal models of kidney diseases, retinoids restore podocyte phenotype toward normal and reduce proteinuria. The objective of this phase II trial is to evaluate safety and develop preliminary evidence of efficacy of retinoid treatment in patients with podocyte disease. The study design is an open-label trial of isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid). The study will be performed under the auspices of an investigational new drug (IND) from the FDA. We will enroll 10 adult patients with biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), or collapsing glomerulopathy (CG). Inclusion criteria will include a prior trial of immunosuppressive therapy and proteinuria greater than or equal to 3.5 g/d while on angiotensin antagonist therapy.

The duration of the trial will be 6 months with possible additional 6-month extension for patients who only develop partial response (PR) or limited response (LR). Those who have complete response (CR) will continue the treatment for one additional month, for no more than 7 months total. Non-responders will stop at the end of 6 months. The primary clinical endpoint will be reduction in proteinuria as compared to the baseline value assessed by paired t test. The secondary clinical endpoints will be the fraction of patients who achieve CR or PR at 6 months and at one year, confirmed on urine collections four weeks apart. Retinoid therapy will be discontinued at the time a CR is confirmed, one month after the first detection of CR. Follow-up will last one year after cessation of drug therapy. Patients who have had a CR or PR but experience a relapse with >2.0g/g proteinuria during follow-up will be eligible for further retinoid therapy. Patients will undergo a renal biopsy prior to initiating therapy, in order to evaluate the extent of glomerular injury and interstitial fibrosis, unless they have had a kidney biopsy within the preceding 24 months that is available for review. Laboratory endpoints will include serum and urine cytokine levels and urine levels of podocyte proteins, including nephrin. Toxicity screening will include serum and urine chemistries, psychological profiles, radiographic films of cervical, thoracic spines and calcanei, and bone mass assessment with dual photon excitation absorptiometry (DEXA) at spine and hip.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 12 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Phase II, open-label pilot study
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Retinoids for Podocyte Disease
Study Start Date : November 26, 2004
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 27, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : June 27, 2016

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Isotretinoin
Subjects will be treated with Isotretinoin.
Drug: Isotretinoin

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Proteinuria at Week 24 From Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 24 ]
    Change of proteinuria at Week 24 compared to the baseline using protein/creatinine ratio (PCR)

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Patients Who Are in Complete Remission (CR) or Partial Remission (PR) at 6 Months or at the End of One Year. [ Time Frame: End of one year from baseline ]
    Based on 24hour proteinuria, response outcomes are defined as CR (complete remission): <0.3 g/g PR (partial remission): 50% fall from baseline and <2.0 g/g

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   16 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
  • Patients with podocyte diseases, MCD, FSGS (including primary, secondary, and adaptive variants), and CG (including HIV-associated variant), who meet the following criteria:

    --An adequate renal biopsy, defined as having minimum 10 glomeruli for light microscopy and minimum 3 glomeruli for electron microscopy, unless the podocyte disease is diagnostic on fewer glomeruli. Patients who have non-diagnostic or technically inadequate biopsies will be offered the opportunity to undergo a research biopsy to determine eligibility. For some patients who have had a non-diagnostic or technically inadequate biopsy, a repeat renal biopsy may be clinically indicated in an effort to diagnose and treat a potentially serious kidney disease.

  • Greater than or equal to 16 years of age. The rationale for excluding younger children is that retinoids may carry greater toxicity in children, as there are reports of premature epiphyseal closure, development of slender long bones, and periostal thickening.
  • Prior treatment with at least two immunosuppressive agents that have been shown to induce remission in MCD and FSGS: glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, and mycophenolate mofetil. Therapy with each agent must last at least 8 weeks. Exemptions will be made for those with contraindications to these medications or those who cannot tolerate these medications. The rationale is to recruit patients who have failed conventional therapy. All patients will be off immunosuppression for at least 4 weeks before starting retinoids in order to avoid a confounding effect.
  • Three first void urine protein/creatinine ratios > 2 g/g obtained within one month prior to enrolling in the study. These urine collections will be obtained after the patient has been on a stable dose of angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) for at least 4 weeks (the maximal antiproteinuric effect of these medications occurs after 4 weeks). The rationale is that patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria are at high risk for progressive renal disease, justifying participation in a clinical trial with novel agents. Patients with steroid-sensitive frequently relapsing MCD will not be required to have used ACE inhibitor or ARB, as steroids alone are typically sufficient therapy to induce remission.
  • If hypertensive: blood pressure of less than or equal to 140/90 on a stable dose of ACE inhibitor or ARB for at least 1 month or greater than or equal to 75 percent of measurements before the entry of the study. The rationale is that uncontrolled hypertension can exacerbate proteinuria.


  • Pregnancy, breastfeeding, or unwillingness to use at least two contraceptive methods (at least one of which must be primary, including tubal ligation, partner vasectomy, oral contraceptives, implanted contraceptives, and intrauterine device). The rationale is that retinoids are teratogenic and are excreted in breast milk.
  • Abnormal liver function test, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, or protime. The rationale is that retinoids can be hepatotoxic. The only exception will be the following: if the cause of abnormality of liver function tests (LFT) is felt to be due to a specific hepatotoxic drug such as a statin and the levels are less than 2 times the upper limit of the normal AND normalize upon holding the offending drug, patients may be considered for study participation after consultation with hepatology service.
  • Hypertriglyceridemia greater than 500 mg/dL despite statin/fibrate therapy. The rationale is that retinoids can increase lipids, particularly triglyceride as this can lead to pancreatitis.
  • Any medical conditions requiring concurrent immunosuppression, as this pilot study is designed to evaluate the effect of retinoids as a monotherapy.
  • Any medical conditions requiring concurrent use of tetracycline, minocycline, or doxycycline, due to enhanced risk of increased intracranial pressure.
  • Hypersensitivity to retinoids.
  • Presence of any unstable cardiovascular disease, uncontrolled diabetes with hemoglobin A1c greater than 8 percent, chronic inflammatory or infectious conditions except HIV-1 infection. Retinoids have been associated with chest pain of unclear etiology, increased serum glucose, myelosuppression and increased risk of infection. The etiology of infection is not clear but may be related to myelosuppression.
  • Those with HIV-1 infection must not have any evidence for opportunistic infectious complications and have cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count greater than or equal to 200. Both tretinoin and isotretinoin have been safely studied in HIV-infected patients for other indications.
  • glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 40 ml/min/1.73m(2) estimated by 5-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, as the metabolites of retinoids are excreted in part in urine, and there is a concern for increased toxicity. In participants less than 18 years of age, we will use Schwartz equation.
  • Expansion of glomerulus or interstitial formation on the biopsy.
  • Untreated depression, as retinoids have been associated with depression, suicidal ideation, and aggressive behavior. If patients manifest significant depressive symptoms, they will be included in the study only if assessed and agreed by a psychiatrist (either at NIH or other) and if they have regular follow-up visits with a psychiatrist.
  • Factors that increase the risk of renal biopsy. These include the following: unwillingness to accept blood transfusion, bleeding diathesis, single kidney, small kidneys (less than 9.5 cm).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00098020

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United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
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Principal Investigator: Jeffrey B Kopp, M.D. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Identifier: NCT00098020    
Other Study ID Numbers: 050015
05-DK-0015 ( Other Identifier: NIH )
First Posted: December 2, 2004    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: December 13, 2017
Last Update Posted: December 13, 2017
Last Verified: October 4, 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: The stored samples for this trial include plasma, urine, and renal biopsy samples. The plasma and urine are collected for cytokine measurement. Renal biopsy is done to evaluate histologic and ultrastructural changes. Samples/Data will be shared with collaborating investigators.
Time Frame: Until study closure.
Access Criteria: Collaborating investigators

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) ):
Chronic Kidney Disease
Nephrotic Syndrome
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Dermatologic Agents