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Pentostatin, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab Followed By Campath-1H in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell CLL

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00074282
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 11, 2003
Results First Posted : February 27, 2019
Last Update Posted : November 17, 2020
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and CAMPATH-1H work in different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab can locate cancer cells and either kill them or deliver cancer-killing substances to them without harming normal cells. Combining chemotherapy with monoclonal antibody therapy may kill more tumor cells.

PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and CAMPATH-1H work in treating patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Leukemia Biological: rituximab Drug: cyclophosphamide Drug: pentostatin Drug: Alemtuzumab Phase 2

Detailed Description:



  • Determine the objective response rate (complete remission, partial remission [PR], or nodular PR) in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (PCR) followed by CAMPATH-1H .
  • Determine the presence of minimal residual disease in patients treated with this regimen who achieve a CR or nPR


  • Determine the toxicity of this regimen in these patients.
  • Determine the overall and progression-free survival of patients treated with this regimen.
  • Evaluate the number of patients who after PCR (or during PCR for PD), only achieve a PR, SD, or PD and who subsequently convert to a higher response category after CAMPATH-1H .


  • Assess the angiogenic profile (i.e., secretion levels of pro- versus anti-angiogenic molecules) of CLL B cell clones as well as bone marrow angiogenesis (i.e., vascular density by immunohistochemistry) at baseline, after PCR, after CAMPATH-1H, every six months (serum only), and at time of response assessment (marrow).
  • Determine the V_H gene mutation status and CD38 expression of the B-CLL clones at study entry and at the end of the therapy and assess the association between the VH gene mutation status and CD38 expression and clinical outcome.
  • Determine surface phenotype (by flow cytometry) and genetic defects (by CLL FISH panel) information on CLL-B cell clones and associate with clinical outcome.
  • Monitor the T-cell status by repertoire and flow cytometry analysis to determine the nature and extent of T-cell deficiency induced by the PCR and CAMPATH-1H treatment and assess any association with clinical outcome and toxicities.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 102 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase II Trial of Pentostatin, Cyclophosphamide and Rituximab (PCR) Followed by Campath-1H for Previously Treated Relapsed or Refractory Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Actual Study Start Date : December 16, 2004
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 9, 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : May 6, 2018

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm A (PCR)

Treatment consisted of 6 cycles of pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (PCR) given every 28 days.

Rituximab administered as follows: For the first infusion, all patients receive 100 mg dose (regardless of weight/BSA). For subsequent infusions, all patients receive rituximab 375 mg/m2.

Pentostatin and cyclophosphamide administered as follows: Pentostatin given at 4 mg/m2 either as an IV push or IV over 10-30 minutes in 250 mL NS or D5W on day 1 every 4 weeks of cycles 1-6. Cyclophosphamide given at 600 mg/m2 IV over 30-60 minutes in 250 mL NS on day 1 every 4 weeks of cycle 1-6.

Biological: rituximab
Other Name: Rituxan

Drug: cyclophosphamide
Other Name: Cytoxan

Drug: pentostatin
Other Names:
  • deoxycoformycin
  • Nipent

Experimental: Arm B (Alemtuzumab: CR, nPR)
Patients who achieved a confirmed CR or nPR, were registered to receive Alemtuzumab (Arm B). When the patient was registered to Arm B, the drug was administered three times a week for four weeks. The dose was 30 mg per dose. A twelve-week treatment-free period had to elapse before CAMPATH-1H began following completion of PCR for Arm B patients
Drug: Alemtuzumab
Other Names:
  • Campath
  • Campath-1H

Experimental: Arm C (Alemtuzumab: PR, <PR, PD)
For those patients not achieving a CR or nPR (thus patients either achieved PR, SD, or PD), Alemtuzumab (Arm C) was administered three times a week for eighteen weeks at a dose of 30 mg TIW. For PR, SD and PD patients, the timing of CAMPATH-1H was left to the discretion of the investigator, and treatment could begin earlier but no less than two weeks and no longer than eight weeks after the completion of the last PCR course. Patients determined to have PD during treatment with PCR did not need to complete all 6 cycles of PCR to go on to Arm C, however, completing a minimum of 2 cycles was required.
Drug: Alemtuzumab
Other Names:
  • Campath
  • Campath-1H

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Response Rate [ Time Frame: 8 weeks after Cycle 6 ]
    Percent with response (CR, nPR, PR) with two-stage 90% confidence interval

  2. Molecular Complete Remission (MCR) Rate [ Time Frame: 3 months post alemtuzumab ]
    Percent of patients who have MCR (clinical CR with flow negative and RT-PCR negative)

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years from registration ]
    OS is defined as the time from registration until death from any cause.

  2. Progression-free Survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years from registration ]
    PFS is defined as the time from registration until induction failure, institution of non-protocol therapy, relapse or death from any cause in the absence of relapse.

  3. Number of Patients Who After PCR (or During PCR for PD), Only Achieve a PR, SD, or PD and Who Subsequently Convert to a Higher Response Category After Campath-1H [ Time Frame: From re-registration up to 5 years (followed for response until progression) ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion criteria:

  • Diagnosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) meeting the following criteria:

    • Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count greater than 5,000/mm^3
    • Lymphocytosis must comprise small to moderate size lymphocytes with no greater than 55% prolymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes, or lymphoblasts morphologically
    • Phenotypically characterized CLL defined by the following:

      • Predominant population of cells share B-cell antigens with CD5 in the absence of other pan-T-cell markers (CD3 or CD2)
      • B cell expresses either kappa or lambda light chains
      • Surface immunoglobulin with low cell surface density expression
  • Requires chemotherapy, as indicated by any of the following:

    • Disease-related symptoms

      • Weight loss of 10% or more within the past 6 months
      • Extreme fatigue
      • Fevers greater than 100.5°F for 2 weeks without evidence of infection
      • Night sweats without evidence of infection
    • Evidence of progressive marrow failure manifested by the development of or worsening anemia (hemoglobin no greater than 10 g/dL) and/or thrombocytopenia (platelet count no greater than 100,000/mm^3)
    • Massive (i.e., greater than 6 cm below left costal margin) or progressive splenomegaly
    • Massive nodes or clusters (i.e., greater than 10 cm in longest diameter) or progressive adenopathy
    • Progressive lymphocytosis with an increase of greater than 50% over a 2-month period OR an anticipated doubling time of less than 6 months
  • Demonstrated progression after at least 1 course of either an alkylating agent-based or purine nucleoside-based (e.g., fludarabine) regimen OR failed to achieve a meaningful response OR relapsed after prior therapy

    • Patients who have relapsed after a pentostatin-based regimen are eligible provided the response was greater than 12 months prior to study entry
  • 18 and over
  • ECOG Performance Status 0-2
  • Bilirubin no greater than 2 mg/dL (unless secondary to tumor, hemolysis, or Gilbert syndrome)
  • Creatinine no greater than 2.0 mg/dL
  • Creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min
  • Negative pregnancy test
  • Fertile patients must use 2 methods of effective contraception (including 1 barrier method) for at least 28 days before starting lenalidomide, while participating in the study, and for at least 28 days after discontinuation/stopping lenalidomide
  • At least 8 weeks since prior rituximab
  • At least 6 weeks since prior chemotherapy
  • At least 1 year since prior pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (PCR) therapy

    • PCR therapy at least 1 year prior to study entry allowed

Exclusion criteria:

  • Bone marrow dysplasia related to prior therapy
  • New York Heart Association class III or IV heart failure
  • Prior lenalidomide
  • Other malignancy within the past 2 years except squamous cell or basal cell skin cancer or carcinoma in situ of the cervix
  • Pregnant or nursing
  • Concurrent oral or IV antibiotics for active infection

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00074282

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Sponsors and Collaborators
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Study Chair: Sanford J. Kempin, MD Beth Israel Medical Center
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group:
Publications of Results:
Kay NE, Kim HT, Kempin S, et al.: Predictors of clinical outcome to pentostatin, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (PCR) followed by campath for relapsed/refractory CLL : a study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, E2903. [Abstract] Blood 112 (11): A-1057, 2008.
Kempin S, Kay NE, Sun Z, et al.: Early results of pentostatin, cytoxan, rituximab (PCR) followed by CAMPATH-H (CA) for the treatment of relapse/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in ECOG protocol E2903. [Abstract] Blood 110 (11): A-3109, 2007.

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Responsible Party: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Identifier: NCT00074282    
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000343796
E2903 ( Other Identifier: ECOG-ACRIN )
First Posted: December 11, 2003    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 27, 2019
Last Update Posted: November 17, 2020
Last Verified: November 2020

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group:
refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Myeloablative Agonists
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors