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Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00065832
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 4, 2003
Last Update Posted : June 3, 2015
Information provided by:
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

Brief Summary:
The first line of defense against reading disabilities is good classroom reading instruction. This study describes how characteristics of students, teachers, and instruction relate to academic achievement in inner-city kindergarten through Grade 4 classrooms.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Dyslexia Behavioral: Reading Instruction Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Recent studies show that the incidence of reading disability can be significantly reduced by improving classroom instruction. Effective reading instruction in the primary grades includes explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, reading for meaning, and opportunities to practice reading and writing. To learn more about the development of literacy skills in urban settings, students in 17 schools in Houston and Washington, D.C., were followed from kindergarten through Grade 4. Schools were selected based on similar demographics: predominantly African-American student population (95%) and high participation in the federal lunch program (85% to 100%). Each school was provided with grade-appropriate reading programs that focused on phonics and spelling. These programs included direct, integrated, classroom, and individual instruction modules.

Approximately 1400 children and 114 teachers participated each year in this four-year study. The design was cross-sequential so that the majority of teachers in a grade participated for two years. All children participating in regular education were included in the study. Children below the 25th percentile on a standardized reading test were tutored individually by retired teachers, using materials from the classroom reading program. A variety of reading curricula were in place in the classrooms across these two sites. In order to help teachers implement these materials effectively, an ongoing research-based professional development model was employed, with curriculum consultants and coaches working with the teachers in the classroom. Researchers observed in each classroom four to six times during the year using on-the-minute recordings of content. Observers also completed ratings of teaching competencies. Teachers completed surveys of knowledge, experience, attitudes, and instructional strategies. A random selection of eight to ten students were assessed four times during the year for growth in literacy-related skills and once at the end of the year for achievement in reading, spelling, and writing.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Enrollment : 1400 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Early Interventions for Children With Reading Problems
Study Start Date : July 1993
Study Completion Date : June 2002

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   5 Years to 8 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria

  • Student in participating school
  • Kindergarten through Grade 4

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00065832

Sponsors and Collaborators
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
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Principal Investigator: Barbara R. Foorman University of Texas
Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R., Boudousquie, A., Barnes, M., Schatschneider, C., & Francis, D.J. (2002). Assessment of reading and learning disabilities: A research-based, treatment-oriented approach. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 27-63.
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Fletcher, J.M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 37-55.
Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., & Schatschneider, C. (Winter, 1997). Prevention of reading failure. Insight, 22-23.
Foorman, B. R. (Ed.) (2003). Preventing and Remediating Reading Difficulities: Bringing Science to Scale. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Foorman, B.R., Chen, D.T., Carlson, C., Moats, L., Francis, D.J., & Fletcher, J. (2003). The necessity of the alphabetic principle to phonemic awareness instruction. Reading and Writing, 16, 289-324.
Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M., & Francis, D.J. (2004). Early reading assessment. In W.M. Evers & H.J. Walberg (Eds.), Testing student learning, evaluating teaching effectiveness (pp. 81-125). Stanford, CA: The Hoover Institution.
Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M., & Francis, D.J. (1999). Beginning reading is strategic and by design multi-level. Issues in Education: Contributions from Educational Psychology, 5, 65-75.
Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M., & Francis, D.J. (1998). Preventing reading failure by ensuring effective reading instruction. In S. Patton & M. Holmes (Eds.), The keys to literacy. Washington, D.C.: Council for Basic Education.
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Beeler, T., Winikates, D., & Fletcher, J.M. (1997). Early interventions for children with reading problems: Study designs and preliminary findings. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8, 63-71.
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Davidson, K., Harm, M., & Griffin, J. (2004). Variability in text features in six grade 1 basal reading programs. Scientific Studies in Reading, 8(2), 167-197.
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Fletcher, J.M., & Schatschneider, C. (2000). Misrepresentation of research by other researchers. Educational Researcher, 29, 27-37.
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Fletcher, J.M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 37-55. [Reprinted in Wray, D. (Ed.) (2004). Major Themes in Education. London, UK: Routledge.]
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Fletcher, J.M., Winikates, D., & Mehta, P. (1997). Early interventions for children with reading problems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1(3), 255-276. (Special issue on reading interventions)
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J, Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., & Fletcher, J.M. (1997). The case for early reading interventions. In B. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Foorman, B.R., & Moats, L.C. (2004). Conditions for sustaining research-based practices in early reading instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 51-60.
Foorman, B.R., & Schatschneider, C. (2003). Measurement of teaching practices during reading/language arts instruction and its relationship to student achievement. In S. Vaughn and K.L. Briggs (Eds.), Reading in the classroom: Systems for observation of teaching and learning (pp. 1-30). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.
Foorman, B.R., Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J.M., Francis, D.J., & Moats, L.C. (2004). The impact of instructional practices in grades 1 and 2 on reading and spelling achievement in high poverty schools. Manuscript under review.
Foorman, B., Seals, L., Anthony, J., & Pollard-Durodola, S. (2003). Vocabulary enrichment program for third and fourth grade African American students: Description, implementation, and impact. In B.Foorman (Ed.) Preventing and Remediating Reading Difficulities: Bringing Science to Scale. (pp. 419-441). Timonium, MD: York Press.
Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J.K. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(4), 202-211.
Francis, D.J., Chen, D.T., Foorman, B.R., Wristers, K., Schatschcneider, C., Carlson, C., & Fletcher, J.M. (2004). Sequencing Approaches to Reading Instruction in Grades 1 and 2: An Application of Segmented Growth Models to Longitudinal Crossover Trials. Manuscript submitted.
Mehta, P., Foorman, B.R., Branum-Martin, L., & Taylor, W. P. (in press). Literacy as a unidimensional multilevel construct: Validation, sources of influence, and implications in a longitudinal study in grades 1-4. Scientific Studies of Reading.
Moats, L.C., & Foorman, B.R. (2003) Measuring teachers' content knowledge of language and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 23-45.
Moats, L.C., & Foorman, B.R. (2004). How quality of writing instruction impacts fourth graders' writing outcomes. Manuscript in preparation.
Pollard-Durodola, S., Seals, L.M., & Foorman, B.R. (in press). Vocabulary enrichment project. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.
Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J., Francis, D., Carlson, C., & Foorman, B. (2004). Kindergarten prediction of reading skills: A longitudinal comparative study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 265-282.
Schatschneider, C., Francis, D.J., Foorman, B.R., & Fletcher, J.M. (1999). The dimensionality of phonological awareness: An application of item response theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 439-449.
Fletcher, J.M., Foorman, B.R., & Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A. (1999). Conceptual and methodological issues in dyslexia research: A lesson for developmental disorders (pp. 271-306). In H. Tager-Flusberg (Ed.), Neurodevelopmental disorders. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Fletcher, J., Francis, D., Shaywitz, B., Foorman, B., & Shaywitz, S. (1998). Intelligence testing and the discrepancy model for children with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, 186-203.
Foorman, B.R. (1995). Research on The Great Debate: Code-oriented versus whole-language approaches to reading instruction. School Psychology Review, 24, 376-392. (Invited article for special issue on research on reading instruction.)
Foorman, B.R., Francis, D., Fletcher, J., & Lynn, A. (1996). Relation of phonological and orthographic processing to early reading: Comparing two approaches to regression-based, reading-level-match designs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 639-652.
Foorman, B.R., & Schatschneider, C. (1997). Beyond alphabetic reading: Comments on Torgesen's prevention and intervention studies. Journal of Academic Language Therapy, 1(1), 59-65.

Layout table for additonal information Identifier: NCT00065832    
Other Study ID Numbers: 5R01HD30995-9
First Posted: August 4, 2003    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 3, 2015
Last Verified: October 2004
Keywords provided by Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD):
Reading disabilities
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Language Disorders
Communication Disorders
Neurobehavioral Manifestations
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Learning Disorders
Signs and Symptoms
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Mental Disorders