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S0219, Combination Chemotherapy Followed By Observation or Surgery in Patients With Stage II or Stage III Cancer of the Urothelium

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00045630
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 27, 2003
Results First Posted : May 27, 2013
Last Update Posted : May 27, 2013
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Southwest Oncology Group

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Combining more than one drug may kill more tumor cells and decrease the need for surgery.

PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy followed by observation or surgery to remove the bladder (cystectomy) in treating patients who have stage II or stage III cancer of the urothelium.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Bladder Cancer Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Urethral Cancer Drug: carboplatin Drug: gemcitabine Drug: paclitaxel Procedure: surgery Phase 2

Detailed Description:


  • Determine the pathologic complete response of patients with stage II or III transitional cell cancer of the urothelium treated with neoadjuvant gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and carboplatin followed by observation or immediate cystectomy.
  • Determine, preliminarily, if molecular markers predict response, survival, and tumor recurrence in patients treated with these regimens.
  • Determine recurrence rates and cystectomy-free survival of patients who choose observation after an initial response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Compare the survival of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by cystectomy vs observation.
  • Determine the feasibility, tolerability, and toxicity of these regimens in these patients.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.

Patients receive gemcitabine IV over 30 minutes and paclitaxel IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 3 weeks for 3 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Within 4-8 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients undergo a third transurethral resection of bladder tumor.

Patients with T0 disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy may choose to undergo observation. These patients undergo cystoscopies with biopsies every 3 months for 1 year, every 4 months for 1 year, and then every 6 months until disease progression.

Patients with T1 disease or greater after neoadjuvant chemotherapy undergo immediate cystectomy. Patients with T0 disease may also choose this option. Patients undergoing immediate cystectomy are followed every 6 months for 2 years and then annually for 3 years.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 95 patients will be accrued for this study within 2 years.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 77 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Sequential Approach to the Treatment of Muscle Invasive, Non-Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Gemcitabine, Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With Molecular Correlates
Study Start Date : January 2003
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 2008
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2011

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Gemcitabine, Paclitaxel, Carboplatin
Gemcitabine, Paclitaxel, Carboplatin followed by surgery
Drug: carboplatin
Drug: gemcitabine
Other Name: gemcitabine hydrochloride

Drug: paclitaxel
Other Name: Taxol

Procedure: surgery

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Pathologic Complete Response Rate by Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT) and Imaging Studies After Chemotherapy [ Time Frame: up to 12 weeks after registration (assessed within 8 weeks after completion of 3 cycles of chemotherapy ) ]
    Pathologic complete response (CR) is defined as absence of viable tumor in the TURBT specimen. Stable/No Response is defined as at least some disease evaluation tests were done (same tests as baseline) and status does not qualify for CR or Progression. Progression is defined as one or more of the following must occur: unequivocal progression of disease in the opinion of the treating physician. Appearance of any new lesion/site. Death due to disease without documented progression or symptomatic deterioration.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: 0-2 years ]
    Overall survival is defined from the date of registration to date of death from any cause

  2. Number of Patients With Grade 3 Through Grade 5 Adverse Events That Are Related to Study Drug [ Time Frame: Patients were assessed for adverse events at weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, and following surgery ]
    Adverse Events (AEs) are reported by the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 2.0. For each patient, worst grade of each event type is reported. Grade 3 = Severe, Grade 4 = Life-threatening, Grade 5 = Fatal.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Histologically confirmed muscle-invasive (T2-T4a), node-negative (N0) urothelial transitional cell cancer (TCC) of the bladder
  • Focal squamous and/or adenocarcinoma differentiation, defined as ≤ 10% of tumor volume allowed
  • The following diagnoses are not allowed:

    • Small cell carcinoma
    • Sarcomatoid components
  • Disease diagnosed with an initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and a second TURBT performed within 8 weeks of first with attempt to remove all tumor present

    • Residual disease after second TURBT allowed
    • No more than 14-56 days after second TURBT
  • No metastatic disease by chest x-ray and CT scan or MRI of the abdomen and pelvis
  • Fresh tumor tissue, paraffin tumor tissue, unstained slides, or cell block specimen from one or both TURBTs available



  • 18 and over

Performance status

  • Zubrod 0-2

Life expectancy

  • Not specified


  • White blood cell count (WBC) at least 3,500/mm^3
  • Absolute granulocyte count at least 1,500/mm^3
  • Platelet count at least lower limit of normal


  • Bilirubin no greater than 1.5 mg/dL
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) no greater than 2 times upper limit of normal


  • Creatinine no greater than 2.0 mg/dL AND/OR
  • Creatinine clearance at least 60 mL/min


  • No prohibitive medical risk that would preclude radical cystectomy
  • No other serious concurrent systemic disorder that would preclude study compliance
  • No other malignancy except adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, carcinoma in situ of the cervix, adequately treated stage I or II cancer in complete remission, or any other cancer for which patient has been disease-free for 5 years
  • Not pregnant or nursing
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception


Biologic therapy

  • Prior intravesical immunotherapy allowed


  • No prior systemic chemotherapy for TCC of the urothelium
  • Prior intravesical chemotherapy allowed

Endocrine therapy

  • Not specified


  • No prior radiotherapy for TCC of the urothelium
  • No concurrent radiotherapy


  • See Disease Characteristics

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00045630

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Sponsors and Collaborators
Southwest Oncology Group
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Study Chair: Primo N. Lara, MD University of California, Davis
Publications of Results:
Lara PN, Goldman B, De Vere White R, et al.: A sequential treatment approach to muscle-invasive urothelial cancer: A phase II Southwest Oncology Group trial (S0219) of neoadjuvant paclitaxel, carboplatin, and gemcitabine (PCG). [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 26 (Suppl 15): A-5022, 2008.

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Responsible Party: Southwest Oncology Group Identifier: NCT00045630    
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00191217
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000256921
S0219 ( Other Identifier: SWOG )
U10CA032102 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: January 27, 2003    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 27, 2013
Last Update Posted: May 27, 2013
Last Verified: April 2013
Keywords provided by Southwest Oncology Group:
anterior urethral cancer
localized transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter
posterior urethral cancer
stage II bladder cancer
stage III bladder cancer
transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
urethral cancer associated with invasive bladder cancer
regional transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Urethral Neoplasms
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Kidney Neoplasms
Ureteral Neoplasms
Urologic Neoplasms
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Urinary Bladder Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Urethral Diseases
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Kidney Diseases
Ureteral Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Agents
Tubulin Modulators
Antimitotic Agents
Mitosis Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents