NGU: Doxycycline (Plus or Minus Tinidazole) Versus Azithromycin (Plus or Minus Tinidazole)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00322465
First received: May 4, 2006
Last updated: May 10, 2012
Last verified: May 2011
  Purpose

This study will look at the safety, effectiveness, and tolerability of combination medications for the initial treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). NGU is inflammation of the tube that carries urine from the bladder. NGU is caused by bacteria that may be passed from person to person during sex. This study will compare the 2 currently recommended NGU treatments, doxycycline and azithromycin, taken with tinidazole (another medication to treat certain sexually transmitted infections). Tinidazole used with doxycycline or azithromycin may cure NGU better than when doxycycline or azithromycin is used alone. Study participants will be 300 men ages 16-45 years with NGU attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Birmingham, AL; New Orleans, LA; Durham, NC; and Baltimore, MD. Study participation will last 7 weeks and involve 3 visits. At each visit, participants will provide a urine sample, have 2 urethral swabs, and have their urethra checked for discharge indicating infection.


Condition Intervention Phase
C Trachomatis
T Vaginalis
M Genitalium
Non-Gonococcal Urethritis
Urethritis
Drug: Doxycycline
Drug: Placebo Doxycycline
Drug: Placebo Tinidazole
Drug: Placebo Azithromycin
Drug: Azithromycin
Drug: Tinidazole
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase II Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind 4-Arm Trial for the Treatment of Non-Gonococcal Urethritis (NGU): Doxycycline (Plus or Minus Tinidazole) Versus Azithromycin (Plus or Minus Tinidazole)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Safety and Tolerability of Doxycycline/Tinidazole and Azithromycin/Tinidazole: Number of Participants Reporting Nausea [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    At all study visits, unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain, and Diarrhea were recorded using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (Version 3.0).

  • Safety and Tolerability of Doxycycline/Tinidazole and Azithromycin/Tinidazole: Number of Participants Reporting Vomiting [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    At all study visits, unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain, and Diarrhea were recorded using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (Version 3.0).

  • Safety and Tolerability of Doxycycline/Tinidazole and Azithromycin/Tinidazole: Number of Participants Reporting Stomach Upset [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    At all study visits, unsolicited adverse events were recorded.

  • Safety and Tolerability of Doxycycline/Tinidazole and Azithromycin/Tinidazole: Number of Participants Reporting of Abdominal Pain [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    At all study visits, unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain, and Diarrhea were recorded using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (Version 3.0).

  • Safety and Tolerability of Doxycycline/Tinidazole and Azithromycin/Tinidazole: Number of Participants Reporting Diarrhea [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    At all study visits, unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain, and Diarrhea were recorded using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (Version 3.0).

  • Percentage of Participants Achieving Clinical Cure of Non-gonococcal Urethritis (NGU) With Doxycycline Versus Doxycycline With Tinidazole; and Azithromycin Versus Azithromycin With Tinidazole [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Clinical Cure of NGU: Did not meet criteria for clinical failure at last evaluable follow-up visit.

    Clinical Failure at first follow-up: [Persistent symptoms AND >= 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) per 3-5 oil immersion fields (regardless of urethral discharge)] OR Persistent urethral discharge on exam (regardless of symptoms or number of PMNs).

    Clinical Failure at second follow-up: >= 5 PMNs per 3-5 oil immersion fields (regardless of symptoms or presence of urethral discharge) OR Persistent urethral discharge on exam (regardless of symptoms or number of PMNs)



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of Participants Achieving Clinical Cure of NGU With (Doxycycline Plus Doxycycline/Tinidazole) Versus (Azithromycin Plus Azithromycin/Tinidazole) [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Clinical Cure of NGU: Did not meet criteria for clinical failure at last evaluable follow-up visit.

    Clinical Failure at first follow-up: [Persistent symptoms AND >= 5 PMNs per 3-5 oil immersion fields (regardless of urethral discharge)] OR Persistent urethral discharge on exam (regardless of symptoms or number of PMNs).

    Clinical Failure at second follow-up: >= 5 PMNs per 3-5 oil immersion fields (regardless of symptoms or presence of urethral discharge) OR Persistent urethral discharge on exam (regardless of symptoms or number of PMNs)


  • Percentage of Participants Achieving Microbiological Cure of Chlamydia Trachomatis With Doxycycline Versus Doxycycline With Tinidazole; and Azithromycin Versus Azithromycin With Tinidazole [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Microbiological cure of Chlamydia trachomatis refers to the percentage of men with NGU who were negative for Chlamydia trachomatis at the last available result and had been positive for Chlamydia trachomatis at baseline.

  • Percentage of Participants Achieving Microbiological Cure of Trichomonas Vaginalis With Doxycycline Versus Doxycycline With Tinidazole; and Azithromycin Versus Azithromycin With Tinidazole [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Microbiological cure of Trichomonas vaginalis refers to the percentage of men with NGU who were negative for Trichomonas vaginalis (swab and urine specimens) at the last available result and had been positive for Trichomonas vaginalis at baseline (swab or urine specimen).

  • Percentage of Participants Achieving Microbiological Cure of Mycoplasma Genitalium With Doxycycline Versus Doxycycline With Tinidazole; and Azithromycin Versus Azithromycin With Tinidazole [ Time Frame: First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Microbiological Cure of Mycoplasma Genitalium refers to the percentage of men with NGU who were negative for Mycoplasma Genitalium at the last available result and had been positive for Mycoplasma Genitalium at baseline.

  • Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Men With Non-gonococcal Urethritis [ Time Frame: Baseline (enrollment visit) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Percentage of men with non-gonococcal urethritis that had a positive result for Chlamydia trachomatis at baseline (enrollment)

  • Prevalence of Trichomonas Vaginalis (Swab or Urine Specimen) in Men With Non-gonococcal Urethritis [ Time Frame: Baseline (enrollment visit) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Percentage of men with non-gonococcal urethritis that had a positive result for Trichomonas vaginalis from a urethral swab or urine specimen at baseline (enrollment)

  • Prevalence of Mycoplasma Genitalium in Men With Non-gonococcal Urethritis [ Time Frame: Baseline (enrollment) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Percentage of men with non-gonococcal urethritis that had a positive result for Mycoplasma genitalium at baseline (enrollment)

  • Clinical, Behavioral, and Demographic Predictors of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Men With Non-gonococcal Urethritis [ Time Frame: Baseline (enrollment visit) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Clinical, behavioral, and demographic variables considered were discharge amount and appearance; condom use last sex; new recent partner; number of partners and new partners in last 30 days as well as last 3 months; number of times vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sex in past 30 days; always/almost always used condom in last 3 months.

  • Clinical, Behavioral, and Demographic Predictors of Trichomonas Vaginalis in Men With Non-gonococcal Urethritis [ Time Frame: Baseline (enrollment visit) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Trichomonas vaginalis was determined from urethral swab or urine specimen. Clinical, behavioral, and demographic predictors considered included discharge amount and appearance; condom use last sex; new recent partner; number of partners and new partners in last 30 days and last 3 months; number of times vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sex in last 30 days; always/almost always used condom in last 3 months.

  • Clinical, Behavioral, and Demographic Predictors of Mycoplasma Genitalium in Men With Non-gonococcal Urethritis [ Time Frame: Baseline (enrollment visit) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Logistic multiple regression with independent variable selection based on single variable models with p<0.10. Participants positive at enrollment for Mycoplasma genitalium from urine specimen. Potential variables: discharge amount and appearance; condom use last sex; new recent partner, number of partners and new partners in last 30 days and last 3 months; number of times vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sex in last 30 days; always/almost always used condom last 3 months.

  • Specimens for Future Studies to Determine the Role of Unique and Novel Pathogens in the Etiology of Non-gonococcal Urethritis [ Time Frame: Baseline (enrollment); First follow-up visit (Day 15-19), second follow-up visit (Day 35-45) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Urethral swabs and urine specimens collected at each study visit for future studies to determine the role of unique and novel pathogens in the etiology of non-gonococcal urethritis


Enrollment: 305
Study Start Date: November 2006
Study Completion Date: April 2009
Primary Completion Date: April 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Doxycycline
Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily (2 pills/day = 200 mg/day) for 7 days plus placebo azithromycin orally single dose and placebo tinidazole.
Drug: Doxycycline
100 mg orally, twice daily for 7 days.
Drug: Placebo Tinidazole
Placebo Tinidazole tablet.
Drug: Placebo Azithromycin
Placebo Azithromycin tablet.
Experimental: Azithromycin + Tinidazole
Azithromycin 1 gm orally single dose (2 tablets at 500 mg each) plus doxycycline placebo twice daily for 7 days plus tinidazole single dose (4 tablets at 500 mg each).
Drug: Placebo Doxycycline
Placebo Doxycycline tablet.
Drug: Azithromycin
1 gram (gm) (2 tablets orally at 500 milligrams (mg) each).
Drug: Tinidazole
2 gm single dose (4 tablets orally at 500 mg each).
Experimental: Azithromycin
Azithromycin 1 gram (gm) orally single dose (2 tablets at 500 milligrams (mg) each) plus doxycycline placebo twice daily for 7 days plus tinidazole placebo single dose.
Drug: Placebo Doxycycline
Placebo Doxycycline tablet.
Drug: Placebo Tinidazole
Placebo Tinidazole tablet.
Drug: Azithromycin
1 gram (gm) (2 tablets orally at 500 milligrams (mg) each).
Experimental: Doxycycline + Tinidazole
Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days plus placebo azithromycin single dose plus tinidazole 2 gm orally single dose (4 tablets at 500 mg each).
Drug: Doxycycline
100 mg orally, twice daily for 7 days.
Drug: Placebo Azithromycin
Placebo Azithromycin tablet.
Drug: Tinidazole
2 gm single dose (4 tablets orally at 500 mg each).

Detailed Description:

This study represents a clinical evaluation of the use of combination therapy for the initial treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). This study will provide more current data on the comparison of cure rates between the 2 currently recommended therapies for NGU, doxycycline and azithromycin. Emerging clinical data has suggested that the latter may have become more efficacious for NGU as it is more effective in eradicating Mycoplasma (M.) genitalium from the genital tract than the former. Only in vitro data, limited as it is, suggests that doxycycline should be active against M. genitalium. The researchers hypothesize that cure rates for NGU will be significantly improved for both doxycycline and azithromycin using combination therapy with tinidazole. Important safety and tolerability data will be collected with regards to the use of combination therapy. Additionally, the study will provide data on the prevalence of the targeted pathogens in 4 geographic areas and on characteristics of men with NGU that may help to target populations who would benefit the most from combination therapy. The researchers hypothesize that currently recommended initial therapies for NGU are inadequate in at least certain populations due to lack of coverage for Trichomonas (T.) vaginalis. The researchers further hypothesize that between the 2 currently recommended regimens, azithromycin will result in a greater number of cures than doxycycline due to its greater efficacy in M. genitalium infected men. The primary study objectives are to: compare the clinical cure rates of doxycycline versus doxycycline with tinidazole; and azithromycin versus azithromycin with tinidazole for the treatment of NGU; and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of doxycycline/tinidazole and azithromycin/tinidazole in the treatment of NGU. Secondary study objectives are to: evaluate microbiological cure of Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, T. vaginalis, M. genitalium in men treated with doxycycline versus doxycycline with tinidazole; and azithromycin versus azithromycin with tinidazole. Analysis will also include: (doxycycline plus doxycycline/tinidazole) versus (azithromycin plus azithromycin/tinidazole); for the clinical cure rates, analysis will also include: (doxycycline plus doxycycline/tinidazole) versus (azithromycin plus azithromycin/tinidazole); determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium in the study population of men with non-gonococcal urethritis; determine clinical, behavioral, and demographic predictors of the above organisms in men with non-gonococcal urethritis; and collect specimens for future studies to determine the role of unique and novel pathogens in the etiology of non-gonococcal urethritis. Outcome measures include clinical failure, clinical cure, microbiological cure, and unevaluable cure assessed at the first and second follow-up visits. Study participants will include 300 men ages 16-45 years with NGU attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Birmingham, AL; New Orleans, LA; Durham, NC; and Baltimore, MD. Subjects will be randomly assigned to 1 of 4 active treatment arms: 75 subjects doxycycline; 75 subjects doxycycline plus tinidazole; 75 subjects azithromycin; and 75 subjects azithromycin plus tinidazole.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   16 Years to 45 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male, 16 to 45 years old.
  • Symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), including urethral discharge and/or dysuria for less than or equal to 14 days, or urethral discharge on exam.
  • Urethral smear with greater than or equal to 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) per 3-5 oil immersion fields.
  • Willing to abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms during the study.
  • Willingness to provide written consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Presence of gonorrhea at baseline visit.
  • History of recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) (3 or more episodes in the prior year) or history of recent NGU (within past 30 days).
  • Signs or symptoms of epididymitis or prostatitis.
  • Known allergy to or intolerance of tinidazole, tetracyclines, macrolides or metronidazole.
  • History of photosensitivity related to doxycycline use.
  • Received systemic antibiotics within 30 days of study enrollment.
  • Unwillingness to abstain from alcohol for 24 hours after enrollment.
  • Serious underlying infection, including known HIV or other primary or secondary immunosuppression.
  • Concomitant infection, which requires antimicrobial therapy.
  • History of mental illness, which would preclude responsible participation in the study.
  • Current drug abuse that might affect ability to follow the protocol.
  • Previously enrolled in this study.
  • Men who have sex with men, due to different microbiology of NGU.
  • Voided within the previous hour.
  • Ingested alcohol within the past 8 hours.
  • Subject requires concurrent lithium, anticoagulation therapy, or antabuse.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00322465

Locations
United States, Alabama
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35255
United States, Louisiana
Delgado Clinic
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21287
United States, North Carolina
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599-7030
Sponsors and Collaborators
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00322465     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 05-0120
Study First Received: May 4, 2006
Results First Received: June 17, 2010
Last Updated: May 10, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Institutional Review Board
United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
non-gonococcal urethritis, doxycycline, azithromycin, sexually transmitted, tinidazole

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Urethritis
Urethral Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Doxycycline
Azithromycin
Tinidazole
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Pharmacologic Actions
Antimalarials
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antitrichomonal Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 28, 2014