Brain Changes in Children and Adolescents With Behavioral Problems

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified September 2013 by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Sponsor:
Information provided by:
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00104039
First received: February 19, 2005
Last updated: July 26, 2014
Last verified: September 2013
  Purpose

Purpose:

This study will examine brain activity in children age 10-18 with disruptive behavior problems, including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), compared with children without behavioral problems. Our goal is to examine differences in how emotions, social situations, and problem-solving situations are processed in the brain across these groups of children.


Condition
Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity
Mental Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood
Conduct Disorder

Study Type: Observational
Official Title: Investigating the Neuro-Cognitive Underpinnings of the Emotional Dysfunction Linked to Childhood Behavioral Disturbance

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

Estimated Enrollment: 640
Study Start Date: February 2005
Detailed Description:

OBJECTIVE:

The goal of this protocol is to investigate the neuro-cognitive underpinnings of the emotional dysfunction linked to childhood behavioral disturbance; in particular, Conduct Disorder with elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits (CD+CU), Conduct Disorder with non elevated CU traits (CD-CU), but also ADHD. The functional hypotheses that we are testing with both neuro-cognitive and neuro-imaging paradigms are that: (1) CD+CU, but not ADHD, is associated with dysfunction in the formation and operational use of stimulus-punishment and, to a lesser extent, stimulus-reward association information; (2) CD-CU is associated with heightened threat sensitivity and impairment in executive systems involved in emotional regulation; and (3) that ADHD and CD-CU, is associated with impairment in executive systems related to the representation and execution of task demands.

STUDY POPULATION:

160 children with Conduct Disorder (CD) and high CU traits (the CD+CU group); 160 children with CD and low CU traits (the CD-CU group); 160 children with ADHD; and 160 healthy volunteer children. All children will be between the ages of 10 and 17. Both males and females will be enrolled.

DESIGN:

The current study will have two phases: i) neuropsychological assessment and training in an MRI simulator (up to 4 hours); ii) The MRI scanning session (up to 2 hours, no more than 90 minutes in scanner). Participants, if they are willing, may be invited to participate in more than one scanning session (up to a maximum of 3 120 minute sessions) or neuro-cognitive testing session.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Behaviorally, we predict that children with CD+CU and children with CD-CU will present with impairment on tasks that involve either the formation or operational use of particular stimulus-punishment associations (e.g., the subjective value learning task and emotional interrupt task). However, the nature of this impairment with be qualitatively different. For example, we predict that youth with CD+CU will show reduced interference by emotional distracters on the emotional interrupt task but that youth with CD-CU will show decreased interference. In contrast, we predict that children with ADHD, but no CD, will show no behavioral impairment on such tasks. However, we predict that children with ADHD and children with CD-CU will present with impairments on executive function tasks (e.g., the Number Stroop paradigm). In contrast, we predict that children with CD+CU will show no impairment on these tasks. At the anatomical level, we anticipate reduced activation of emotional related systems in children with CD+CU, but increased activation in children with CD-CU, during emotional impact tasks (in particular, reduced activation of the amygdala, regions of orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate). We anticipate that the neural response of children with ADHD during these tasks will be less anomalous. We anticipate that the neural response of children with ADHD and children with CD-CU during the performance of response control tasks to be anomalous (with considerable greater recruitment of anterior and posterior compensatory systems).

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   8 Years to 18 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA:

    1. Individuals with CD + CU: Male and female subjects aged 8-18 who score equal to or more than 20 on the APSD/PCL-YV. Children with antisocial behavioral problems on medications with psychotropic effects will be considered if their target behaviors persist despite the use of medications. In these children, only simple stimulant medications will be held for 48 hours. These include methylphenidate, amphetamine and their derivatives including Ritalin, Ritalin SR, Ritalin LA, Methylin, Methlin ER, Metadate CD, Concerta, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Dexedrine Spansule, Adderall, Adderall XR, and Focalin. Medications like Strattera (atomoxetine), bupropion (Wellbutrin), modafinil (Provigil), or valproic acid (Depakote), or other mood stabilizers are not safe to stop suddenly and children taking these medications will not be asked to stop them.
    2. Individuals with CD-CU: Male and female subjects aged 8 -18 who score less than 20 on the APSD/PCL-YV. Children with antisocial behavioral problems on medications with psychotopic effects will be considered if their target behaviors persist despite the use of medications. In these children, only simple stimulant medications will be held for 48 hours. These include methylphenidate, amphetamine and their derivatives including Ritalin, Ritalin SR, Ritalin LA, Methylin, Methlin ER, Metadate-CD, Concerta, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Dexedrine Spansule, Adderall, Adderall XR, and Focalin Medications like Starattera (atomoxetine), bupropion (Wellbutrin), modafinil (Provigil), or valproic acid (Depakote), or other mood stabilizers are not safe to stop suddenly and children taking these medications will not be asked to stop them.
    3. Individuals with ADHD: Male and female subjects aged 8-18 who currently meet DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The diagnosis will be made on the basis of a K-SADS-PL interview with the parent and a t score > 65 on the hyperactivity-impulsivity subscale of the Connors Teacher Scale. Participants in this group will have APSD scores < 20.
    4. Comparison individuals: Male and female subjects aged 8-18 who are free from any current or past psychopathology (all will score less than 20 on the APSD/PCL-YV).

EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

  1. I.Q.< 75.
  2. Ongoing medical illness other than those listed in the inclusion criteria for the respective groups that require use of any medication that may have psychotropic effects. For example, a patient with history of mild asthma that did not require medication may be included, however a patient with asthma requiring use of beta blockers, steroids, etc. would not be included. For children with ADHD or healthy volunteer children, a contraindication to discontinuing medication for 48 hours. Only simple stimulant medications will be held for 48 hours. These include methylphenidate, amphetamine and their derivative including Ritalin, Ritalin SR, Ritalin LA, Methylin, Methlin ER, Metadate CD, Concerta, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Dexedrine Spansule, Adderall, Adderall XR, and Focalin. Medications like Strattera (atomoxetine), bupropion (Wellbutrin), or modafinil (Provigil) are not safe to stop suddenly and children with ADHD taking these medications will not be included.
  3. Subjects with psychopathic tendencies who receive a diagnosis of an anxiety or mood disorder as determined by a clinical and K-SAD review conducted by a psychiatrist will be excluded. Additionally, children with active psychosis, pervasive developmental disorders or Tourette s syndrome will be excluded.
  4. Children with CD-CU will be evaluated through the KSAD and clinical review by a psychiatrist. Explicit exclusions include active psychosis, Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Tourette s syndrome. Children with anxiety disorders will be included given the high comorbidity of CD-CU and anxiety disorders.
  5. Individuals with ADHD will be evaluated through the KSAD and clinical review by a psychiatrist. Those children who receive diagnosis of mood disorders through this evaluation process will be excluded. Additional explicit exclusions include active psychosis, Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Tourette s syndrome. Children with anxiety disorders will be included given the high comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety disorders.
  6. Any other psychiatric disorder that is sufficiently severe to require specific treatment, with the exception of those listed in the inclusion criteria for the respective groups.
  7. Neurologic disorder (including seizures).
  8. Any metallic objects in the body. Metal plates, certain types of dental braces, cardiac pacemakers, etc., that are sensitive to electromagnetic fields contraindicate MRI scans.
  9. Claustrophobia: participants will be questioned about potential discomfort in being in an enclosed space, such as an MRI scanner.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00104039

Contacts
Contact: James J Blair, Ph.D. (301) 496-5198 jamesblair@mail.nih.gov

Locations
United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike Recruiting
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Contact: For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact Patient Recruitment and Public Liaison Office (PRPL)    800-411-1222 ext TTY8664111010    prpl@mail.cc.nih.gov   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Principal Investigator: James J Blair, Ph.D. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00104039     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 050105, 05-M-0105
Study First Received: February 19, 2005
Last Updated: July 26, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Amygdala
Orbital Frontal Cortex
Serotonin
Orbitofrontal Cortex
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD
Anti-Social Behavior
Healthy Volunteer
HV

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Mental Disorders
Psychotic Disorders
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Conduct Disorder
Hyperkinesis
Mental Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood
Schizophrenia and Disorders with Psychotic Features
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Dyskinesias
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Signs and Symptoms

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 29, 2014