A Two Part Study (306A/306B) to Assess Droxidopa in Treatment of NOH in Patients With Parkinson's Disease

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Chelsea Therapeutics
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First received: July 30, 2010
Last updated: November 25, 2013
Last verified: November 2013

This is a study to evaluate the effects of an investigational drug, Droxidopa, in participants with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), associated with Parkinson's disease. Droxidopa is being studied to determine the effects on blood pressure changes upon standing up (orthostatic challenge). Symptoms and activity measurements, including patient reported falls, will be evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the study drug.

Symptoms of NOH may include any of the following:

  • Dizziness, light-headedness, feeling faint or feeling like you may blackout
  • Problems with vision (blurring, seeing spots, tunnel vision, etc.)
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Head & neck discomfort (the coat hanger syndrome)
  • Difficulty standing for a short time or a long time
  • Trouble walking for a short time or a long time

The study duration is a maximum of approximately 14 weeks including up to 2 weeks for screening, up to 2 weeks for proper dose finding, followed by an 8 week treatment period and a follow-up visit after 2 weeks. A sufficient number of patients will be screened to allow approximately 211 randomized patients. An extension study is also available to continue treatment if determined appropriate by the study doctor. This Study is NCT01132326 sponsored by Chelsea Therapeutics and is enrolling by invitation only.

Condition Intervention Phase
Orthostatic Hypotension
Parkinson's Disease
Drug: Droxidopa
Other: Placebo
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Effect of Droxidopa in the Treatment of Symptomatic Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension in Patients With Parkinson's Disease

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Chelsea Therapeutics:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • 306A Efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline to End of Study (approximately 8 Weeks) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The primary efficacy endpoint for 306A is the relative mean change in OHQ composite score from baseline to end of study (Approximately 8 weeks of treatment)

  • 306B Efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline to 1 week ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The primary efficacy endpoint for 306B is the OHSA item 1 from the OHQ (dizziness, lightheadedness, or feeling like you might black out) at week 1 (Approximately 1 week of treatment)

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • 306A Efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline to End of Study (Approximately 8 weeks of treatment) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Patient reported falls

  • 306A Efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline to End of Study (Approximately 8 weeks of treatment) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Relative mean change in the OHQ composite score (including temporal interactions), dizziness (OHSA item 1), activities of daily living (OHDAS items 1 & 2) from Baseline to end of study

  • 306A Efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline to end of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Relative mean change in the global assessment evaluations using the clinician and patient recorded CGI-I scales from baseline to end of study

  • 306A Efficacy [ Time Frame: End of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Global assessment of improvement of disease state using the clinician and patient recorded CGI-I scales at end of study

  • 306A Efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline to end of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Change in standing time from baseline to end of study

  • 306A Efficacy [ Time Frame: Baseline to end of titration ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Change in standing blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) from baseline to end of titration

  • 306B Efficacy [ Time Frame: Across study visits ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Evaluate the clinical efficacy of droxidopa as demonstrated by improvements in the OHSA item #1 across study visits

  • 306B Efficacy [ Time Frame: Across study visits ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Evaluate the clinical efficacy of droxidopa as demonstrated by a difference in patient reported falls across study visits

  • 306B Efficacy [ Time Frame: Across study visits ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Evaluate the clinical efficacy of droxidopa as demonstrated by change in symptom measurements using the OHQ composite score, the OHSA composite score, and OHSA Items #2 to #6, and change in activity measurements using the OHDAS composite score and and OHDAS Item #! to #4 across study visits

  • 306B Efficacy [ Time Frame: Across study visits ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Evaluate the clinical efficacy of droxidopa as demonstrated by change in the clinician and patient recorded CGI-S and CGI-I scales across study visits

  • 306B Efficacy [ Time Frame: Across study visits ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Evaluate the clinical efficacy of droxidopa on standing time as demonstrated by a change across study visits

  • 306B Efficacy [ Time Frame: Across study visits ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Evaluate the clinical efficacy of droxidopa on standing blood pressure as demonstrated by a change across study visits

  • 306B Safety [ Time Frame: Across the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Describe the safety and tolerability of droxidopa as demonstrated by the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, MDS-UPDRS, PDQ-39, ECG, and laboratory measures across the study

Enrollment: 225
Study Start Date: June 2010
Study Completion Date: November 2012
Primary Completion Date: October 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Droxidopa
droxidopa active drug
Drug: Droxidopa
100 mg and 200 mg capsules 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600mg TID dosing for up to 8 weeks of treatment
Other Names:
  • Northera
  • Droxidopa
  • L-DOPS
  • L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine
  • SM-5688
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo matched control
Other: Placebo
Other Name: Mannitol, Sugar Pill

  Hide Detailed Description

Detailed Description:

Systolic blood pressure is transiently and minimally decreased in healthy individuals upon standing. Normal physiologic feedback mechanisms work through neurally-mediated pathways to maintain the standing blood pressure, and thus maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. The compensatory mechanisms that regulate blood pressure upon standing are dysfunctional in subjects with orthostatic hypotension (OH), a condition that may lead to inadequate cerebral perfusion with accompanying symptoms of syncope, dizziness or lightheadedness, unsteadiness and blurred or impaired vision, among other symptoms.

Orthostatic hypotension may be a severely disabling condition which can seriously interfere with the quality of life of afflicted subjects. Currently available therapeutic options provide some symptomatic relief in a subset of subjects, but are relatively ineffective and are often accompanied by severe side effects that limit their usefulness. Support garments (tight-fitting leotard) may prove useful in some subjects, but is difficult to don without family or nursing assistance, especially for older subjects. Midodrine, fludrocortisone, methylphenidate, ephedrine, indomethacin and dihydroergotamine are among some of the pharmacological interventions that have been used to treat orthostatic hypotension, although only midodrine is specifically approved for this indication. The limitations of these currently available therapeutic options, and the incapacitating nature and often progressive downhill course of disease, point to the need for an improved therapeutic alternative.

Symptomatic OH in patients with Parkinson's disease is thought to be a consequence of norepinephrine depletion leading to low systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cerebral-hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow to the brain). Therapy with droxidopa results in increased levels of norepinephrine which should lead to improved SBP and cerebral perfusion thereby reducing the signs and symptoms of NOH. The present study will evaluate the clinical benefit in NOH patients with PD treated with droxidopa compared to those treated with placebo.

Participation in the study will last a maximum of 14 weeks consisting of a 2 week (maximum) screening/baseline period; a 2 week (maximum) double-blind dose titration; an 8 week double-blind placebo-controlled treatment period; and a 2 week follow-up period. An extension study is also available to continue treatment if determined appropriate by the study doctor. This Study is NCT01132326 sponsored by Chelsea Therapeutics and is enrolling by invitation only.


Droxidopa [also, known as L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine, L-threo-DOPS, or L-DOPS] is the International non-proprietary name (INN) for a synthetic amino acid precursor of norepinephrine (NE), which was originally developed by Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Co., Limited, Japan. It has been approved for use in Japan since 1989. Droxidopa has been shown to improve symptoms of orthostatic hypotension that result from a variety of conditions including Shy Drager syndrome (Multiple System Atrophy), Pure Autonomic Failure, and Parkinson's disease. There are four stereoisomers of DOPS; however, only the L-threo-enantiomer (droxidopa) is biologically active. Stereoisomers and enantiomers are compounds that have the same chemical elements; however, they may react differently as the elements are positioned in different locations.

The exact mechanism of action of droxidopa in the treatment of symptomatic NOH has not been precisely defined; however, its NE replenishing properties with concomitant recovery of decreased noradrenergic activity are considered to be of major importance.

Droxidopa has been marketed in Japan since 1989. Data from clinical studies and post-marketing surveillance programs conducted in Japan show that the most commonly reported adverse drug reactions with droxidopa are increased blood pressure, nausea, and headache. In clinical studies, the prevalence and severity of droxidopa adverse effects appear to be similar to those reported by the placebo control arm.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion criteria:

  1. 18 years or over
  2. Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease
  3. Clinical diagnosis of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension

At their baseline visit (Visit 2), patients must demonstrate:

  • a score of at least 3 or greater on the OHQ composite
  • a score of at least 3 or greater on the clinician CGI-S
  • a fall of at least 20 mmHg in their systolic blood pressure, or 10 mmHg in their diastolic blood pressure, within 3 minutes of standing 4. Provide written informed consent to participate in the study and understand that they may withdraw their consent at any time without prejudice to their future medical care

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Score of 23 or lower on the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)
  2. Concomitant use of vasoconstricting agents for the purpose of increasing blood pressure;

    - Patients taking vasoconstricting agents such as ephedrine, dihydroergotamine, or midodrine must stop taking these drugs at least 2 days or 5 half-lives (whichever is longer) prior to their baseline visit (Visit 2) and throughout the duration of the study

  3. Concomitant use of anti-hypertensive medication for the treatment of essential hypertension
  4. Have changed dose, frequency or type of prescribed medication, within two weeks of baseline visit (Visit 2) with the following exceptions:

    • Vasoconstricting agents such a ephedrine, dihydroergotamine, or midodrine
    • Short courses (less than 2 weeks) of medications or treatments that do not interfere with, or exacerbate the patient's condition under study (e.g. antibiotics)
  5. Known or suspected alcohol or substance abuse within the past 12 months (DSM-IV definition of alcohol or substance abuse)
  6. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding
  7. Women of child bearing potential (WOCP) who are not using at least one method of contraception with their partner
  8. Male patients who are sexually active with a woman of child bearing potential (WOCP) and not using at least one method of contraception
  9. Untreated closed angle glaucoma, or treated closed angle glaucoma that, in the opinion of an ophthalmologist, might result in an increased risk to the patient
  10. Sustained severe hypertension (BP ≥ 180 mmHg systolic or ≥ 110 mmHg diastolic in the seated or supine position which is observed in 3 consecutive measurements over an hour)
  11. Any significant uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia
  12. History of myocardial infarction, within the past 2 years
  13. Current unstable angina
  14. Congestive heart failure (NYHA Class 3 or 4)
  15. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy
  16. History of cancer within the past 2 years other than a successfully treated, non-metastatic cutaneous squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma or cervical cancer in situ
  17. Gastrointestinal condition, which in the Investigator's judgment, may affect the absorption of study drug (e.g. ulcerative colitis, gastric bypass)
  18. Any major surgical procedure within 30 days of the baseline visit (Visit 2)
  19. Previously treated with droxidopa
  20. Currently receiving any investigational drug or have received an investigational drug within 30 days of the baseline visit (Visit 2)
  21. Any condition or laboratory test result, which in the Investigator's judgment, might result in an increased risk to the patient, or would affect their participation in the study. Additionally the Investigator has the ability to exclude a patient if for any reason they feel the subject is not a good candidate for the study or will not be able to follow study procedures.
  Contacts and Locations
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176240

  Hide Study Locations
United States, Alabama
Neurology Neurodiagnostic Lab
Alabaster, Alabama, United States, 35007
United States, Arizona
Neurological Physicians of Arizona
Gilbert, Arizona, United States, 85234
Barrow Neurology Clinic
Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 85013
Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 85004
Banner Health
Sun City, Arizona, United States, 85351
Center for Neurosciences
Tucson, Arizona, United States, 85718
Northwest Neuro Specialists P.L.L.C.
Tucson, Arizona, United States, 85741
United States, California
Caring Clinical Research Incorporated
Laguna Hills, California, United States, 92653
Hoag Memorial Hospital, Presbyterian
Newport Beach, California, United States, 92663
Neurosearch - Pasadena
Pasadena, California, United States, 91105
Alliance Clinical Research, LLC
Poway, California, United States, 92064
Neurosearch, Inc.
Reseda, California, United States, 91335
Neurosearch II, Inc.
Ventura, California, United States, 93003
Neurology Consultants Medical Group
Whittier, California, United States, 90606
United States, Connecticut
Associated Neurologist of Southern Connecticut, PC
Fairfield, Connecticut, United States, 06824
Hartford Hospital
Hartford, Connecticut, United States, 06106
Eastern Connecticut Neurology Specialists
Manchester, Connecticut, United States, 06040
United States, Florida
Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorder Disoder
Boca Raton, Florida, United States, 33486
Pharmax Research Clinic, LLC
Miami, Florida, United States, 33126
Neurology Associates of Ormond Beach
Ormond Beach, Florida, United States, 32174
Neurostudies Inc.
Port Charlotte, Florida, United States, 33952
Parkinson's Disease Treatment Center of Southwest Florida
Port Charlotte, Florida, United States, 33980
Lovelace Scientific Research
Sarasota, Florida, United States, 34233
Tampa General University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida, United States, 33606
Vero Neurology
Vero Beach, Florida, United States, 32960
Premiere Research Institute
West Palm Beach, Florida, United States, 33407
United States, Georgia
Emory University
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30329
Neurology Specialists of Decatur Research Center
Decatur, Georgia, United States, 30033
Prism Research Group
Rome, Georgia, United States, 30165
United States, Illinois
Alexian Brothers Hospital Network
Elk Grove Village, Illinois, United States, 60007
United States, Kansas
Precise Clinical Research
Topeka, Kansas, United States, 66604
United States, Louisiana
North Oaks Health System
Hammond, Louisiana, United States, 70403
United States, Massachusetts
Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02215
United States, Michigan
Detroit Clinical Research Center
Novi, Michigan, United States, 48377
Northern Michigan Neurology
Traverse City, Michigan, United States, 49684
United States, Mississippi
Gulf Coast Neurology Center, PLLC
Ocean Springs, Mississippi, United States, 39564
United States, Nevada
University of Nevada School of Medicine
Las Vegas, Nevada, United States, 89102
United States, New Jersey
Wellness and Research Center
Belvidere, New Jersey, United States, 07823
AdvanceMed Research
Lawrenceville, New Jersey, United States, 08648
Shore Neurology
Toms River, New Jersey, United States, 08755
United States, New York
Upstate Clinical Research, LLC
Albany, New York, United States, 12205
David L. Kreitzman, M.D., PC
Commack, New York, United States, 11725
Kingston Neurological Associates
Kingston, New York, United States, 12401
Parker Jewish Institute For Health Care and Rehabilitation Foundation
New Hyde Park, New York, United States, 11040-1433
Beth Israel Medical Center
New York, New York, United States, 10003
New York University
New York, New York, United States, 10016
Neurological Care of CNY
Syracuse, New York, United States, 13210
United States, North Carolina
Asheville Neurology Specialists, PA
Asheville, North Carolina, United States, 28806
Guilford Neurologic Associates
Greensboro, North Carolina, United States, 27405
Clinical Trials of America Inc
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States, 27103
United States, Ohio
Community Research
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45227
Ohio State University Medical Center
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43210
University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio, United States, 43614
United States, Oklahoma
Movement Disorder Clinic of Oklahoma PLLC
Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States, 74136
United States, Pennsylvania
Ilumina Clinical Associates
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, United States, 15904
Clinical Trials Research Services LLC
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15206
United States, Texas
UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
Dallas, Texas, United States, 75390-9063
United States, Utah
JM Neuroscience Research
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84108
United States, Virginia
Neurological Associates, Inc.
Richmond, Virginia, United States, 23226
Sentara Neurology Specialists
Virginia Beach, Virginia, United States, 23456
Sponsors and Collaborators
Chelsea Therapeutics
Principal Investigator: Robert Hauser, M.D. University of South Florida
Study Chair: Lawrence A. Hewitt, Ph.D. Chelsea Therapeutics, Inc.
Study Director: William Schwieterman, M.D. Chelsea Therapeutics, Inc.
  More Information

Additional Information:
Malamut, R., Freeman, R., Gilden, J., Tulloch, J., Kaufmann, H., 2005. A multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study to assess the clinical benefit of midodrine in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Clin. Auto. Res. 15 (5) 337[abstract].
Narabayashi, H., Nakanishi, T., Kanazawa, I., Yoshida, M., Mizuno, Y., Yanagisawa, N., Kondo, T. 1987. Clinical effects of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine in Parkinson's disease and Parkinson syndrome: Results of multi-center open study at 45 institutions. Yakuri To Chiryo (Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther.) 15(Suppl. 2):411 to 443.
Sobue, I., Senda, Y., Suzuki, T., Narabayashi, I., Hirayama, K. 1987. Clinical effects of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine on orthostatic hypotension in Shy-Drager Syndrome and its related diseases. Shinkei Naika Chiryo [Neurol. Ther.] 4(2):199-208.

Responsible Party: Chelsea Therapeutics
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01176240     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Droxidopa NOH306 (306A / 306B)
Study First Received: July 30, 2010
Last Updated: November 25, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Chelsea Therapeutics:
head & neck pain
standing/walking for a short time
standing/walking for a long time
Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension
Parkinson's disease

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Hypotension, Orthostatic
Parkinson Disease
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Orthostatic Intolerance
Primary Dysautonomias
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Parkinsonian Disorders
Basal Ganglia Diseases
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Movement Disorders
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antiparkinson Agents
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
Central Nervous System Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Pharmacologic Actions

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 16, 2014