Effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) in Parkinson Disease (QE3)

This study has been terminated.
(The investigational drug is unlikely to demonstrate efficacy over placebo for this indication. However, no safety issues were discovered.)
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
University of Rochester
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00740714
First received: August 22, 2008
Last updated: December 24, 2012
Last verified: December 2012
  Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of high dosages of Coenzyme Q10 in slowing clinical decline in people who have early Parkinson disease.


Condition Intervention Phase
Parkinson Disease
Drug: Coenzyme Q10 with vitamin E
Drug: placebo with vitamin E
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Parkinson Disease - Phase III

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Weill Medical College of Cornell University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (Total Score (Sum of Parts I, II and III Ranges From 0 to 176)) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 16 months or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Outcome is defined as change in total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) between the baseline visit and month 16 or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first. The UPDRS score has three components, each consisting of questions answered on a 0-4 point scale. Part I assesses mentation, behavior and mood; Part II assesses activities of daily living in the week prior to the designated visit; and Part III assesses motor abilities at the time of the visit. A total of 31 items are included in Parts I, II and III. Each item will receive a score ranging from 0 to 4 where 0 represents the absence of impairment and 4 represents the highest degree of impairment. Total score ranges from 0-176.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Modified Schwab & England Independence Scale From Baseline to 16 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 16 months or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    This scale measures activities of daily living. This is an investigator and subject assessment of the subject's level of independence at all scheduled visits. The subject is scored on a percentage scale reflective of his/her ability to perform acts of daily living in relation to pre-Parkinson disease ability. Scores range in increments of 10%: 100% for normal (subject is completely independent; essentially normal) to 0% (vegetative functions such as swallowing, bladder and bowel functions are not functioning; bedridden).

  • Change in Modified Rankin Scale From Baseline to 16 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 16 months or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The Modified Rankin Scale is a global functional health index with a strong accent on physical disability. Subjects are scored on a scale of 0 (no symptoms at all) to 5 (severe disability: bedridden incontinent, and requiring constant nursing care and attention.

  • Change in PD Quality of Life Scale From Baseline to 16 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 16 months or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The subject will complete a questionnaire that will evaluate how Parkinson disease has affected their health and overall quality of life at each visit. The total quality of life scale measures a total of 33 aspects of quality of life. Each aspect is rated on scale of 0 (best outcome) to 4 (worst outcome). Total score range is 0-132. A higher score or increased score compared to a previous visit indicates a lowered quality of life.

  • Change in Symbol Digit Modalities Test From Baseline to 16 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 16 months or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The Symbol Digit Modalities Test screens cognitive impairment by using a simple substitution tasks that individuals with normal functioning can easily perform. The test score range is from 0(worst outcome) to 110 (best outcome).

  • Change in Hoehn & Yahr Score From Baseline to 16 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 16 months or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The Modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale is an 8-level Parkinson disease staging instrument. The investigator will assess disease stage at each level. The disease stages range from the best outcome of 0 (no signs of disease) to the worst outcome of 5 (wheelchair bound or bedridden unless aided).

  • CoQ10 Levels in Plasma [ Time Frame: Baseline, 1, 8 and 16 months or the time of sufficient disability to require dopaminergic therapy or study closure, whichever occurs first ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Based on samples analyzed to date

  • Adverse Experiences: Back Pain [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with back pain

  • Adverse Experiences: Constipation [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with constipation

  • Adverse Experiences: Insomnia [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with insomnia

  • Adverse Experiences: Anxiety [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with anxiety

  • Adverse Experiences: Tremor [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with tremor

  • Adverse Experiences: Nasopharyngitis [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with nasopharyngitis

  • Adverse Experiences: Diarrhoea [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with diarrhoea

  • Adverse Experiences: Headache [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with headache

  • Adverse Experiences: Urinary Tract Infection [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of patients with urinary tract infections

  • Adverse Experiences: Nausea [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with nausea

  • Adverse Experiences: Hypertension [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with hypertension

  • Adverse Experiences: Depression [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with depression

  • Adverse Experiences: Constipation: Moderate/Severe [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with moderate/severe constipation

  • Adverse Experiences: Anxiety: Moderate/Severe [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with moderate/severe anxiety

  • Adverse Experiences: Back Pain: Moderate/Severe [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with moderate/severe back pain

  • Adverse Experiences: Insomnia: Moderate/Severe [ Time Frame: Over 16 months (Screening, Baseline, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 month visits) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Number of participants with moderate/severe insomnia


Enrollment: 600
Study Start Date: December 2008
Study Completion Date: August 2011
Primary Completion Date: August 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: A
Randomized to active treatment (Coenzyme Q10 2400 mg/day with vitamin E 1200 IU/day)
Drug: Coenzyme Q10 with vitamin E
2400 mg dose - eight 300 mg Coenzyme Q10 chewable wafers taken orally four times a day; 1200 mg dose - four 300 mg Coenzyme Q10 and four placebo chewable wafers taken orally four times a day.
Other Name: Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone, ubidecarenone
Experimental: B
Randomized to active treatment (Coenzyme Q10 1200 mg/day with vitamin E 1200 IU/day)
Drug: Coenzyme Q10 with vitamin E
2400 mg dose - eight 300 mg Coenzyme Q10 chewable wafers taken orally four times a day; 1200 mg dose - four 300 mg Coenzyme Q10 and four placebo chewable wafers taken orally four times a day.
Other Name: Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone, ubidecarenone
Placebo Comparator: C
Placebo (with vitamin E 1200 IU/day)
Drug: placebo with vitamin E
placebo or an inactive substance (with vitamin E 1200 IU/day); Placebo - eight chewable wafers taken orally four times a day.

Detailed Description:

Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects more than 1,000,000 Americans. Currently there is no proven therapy to reduce the rate of progression of PD. In a previous phase II clinical trial, investigators demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) at dosages of 300, 600, and 1200 mg/day was safe and well-tolerated in individuals with early, untreated PD. The findings also suggested that CoQ may slow the progressive impairment of PD as measured by the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).

In this study, researchers will conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of CoQ to confirm and extend the results of the earlier phase II study. The primary objective of this trial is to compare the effect of two dosages of CoQ (1200 and 2400 mg/day) and placebo on the total UPDRS score in people with early PD. The study also will evaluate independent function, cognition, and quality of life. Plasma CoQ levels will be measured at months 1, 8 and 16 and correlated with changes in UPDRS scores.

Participants will be randomly assigned to receive a placebo (an inactive substance), 1200 mg/d CoQ, or 2400 mg/d CoQ. They will be evaluated at screening, baseline, and during visits at months 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16. Information gained from this trial could lead to changes in management of people with early PD.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   30 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Presence of all 3 of the cardinal features of Parkinson disease (resting tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity). The clinical signs must be asymmetric.
  • The diagnosis of Parkinson disease within 5 years prior to the Screening Visit.
  • Age 30 or older.
  • Female subjects must not be of childbearing potential or must use an approved form of contraception for the duration of the trial.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Use of any Parkinson disease medication within 60 days prior to the Baseline Visit.
  • Duration of previous use of symptomatic medication for Parkinson disease cannot exceed 90 days such as levodopa, dopaminergic agonists (including ropinirole, pramipexole, pergolide, cabergoline, and the rotigotine transdermal system), selegiline, rasagiline, amantadine, and anticholinergic agents.
  • Parkinsonism due to drugs including neuroleptics, alphamethyldopa, reserpine, metoclopramide, valproic acid.
  • Use of antioxidants (such as selegiline, rasagiline, vitamins E and C), additional supplemental vitamins or minerals, regular use of neuroleptics, chloramphenicol, valproic acid, warfarin.
  • Other parkinsonian disorders.
  • Modified Hoehn and Yahr score of 3 or greater at Screening Visit or Baseline Visit.
  • UPDRS tremor score of 3 or greater at Screening Visit or Baseline Visit.
  • Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 25 or less.
  • History of stroke.
  • Disability sufficient to require treatment with dopaminergic medication or anticipated need for dopaminergic medication within next 3 months.
  • Other serious illness, including psychiatric illness.
  • Patients with active cardiovascular, peripheral vascular or cerebrovascular disease within the past year.
  • Clinically serious abnormalities in the Screening Visit laboratory studies or electrocardiogram.
  • Use of methylphenidate, cinnarizine, reserpine, amphetamine or a MAO-A inhibitor within 6 months prior to the Baseline Visit.
  • Unstable dose of CNS active therapies.
  • Use of appetite suppressants within 60 days prior to the Baseline Visit.
  • History of active epilepsy within the last 5 years.
  • Revised Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression of 11 or greater.
  • Participation in other drug studies or use of other investigational drugs within 30 days prior to Screening Visit.
  • History of electroconvulsive therapy.
  • History of any brain surgery for Parkinson disease.
  • History of structural brain disease such as prior trauma causing damage detected on a CT scan or MRI, hydrocephalus, or prior brain neoplasms.
  Contacts and Locations
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00740714

  Hide Study Locations
Locations
United States, Alabama
University of Alabama, Birmingham, 350 Sparks Center, 1720 7Th Avenue South
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35233
United States, Arizona
Barrow Neurological Clinics At St Joseph`S Hospital & Medical Center, 500 West Thomas Road Suite 720
Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 85013
Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 East Shea Boulevard, Desk 34 3B
Scottsdale, Arizona, United States, 85260
Sunhealth Research Institute, 10515 West Santa Fe Drive
Sun City, Arizona, United States, 85351
United States, California
The Parkinson'S & Movement Disorder Institute, 9940 Talbert Avenue, Suite 204
Fountain Valley, California, United States, 92708
University of California Irvine, 100 Irvine Hall
Irvine, California, United States, 92697-4275
University of California San Diego, Alzheimer'S Disease Research Center, 9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, California, United States, 92093-0948
UCLA Medical Center, 710 Westwood Plaza, A-253
Los Angeles, California, United States, 900095
UC Davis Dept of Neurology, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3700
Sacramento, California, United States, 95817
The Parkinson's Institute, 675 ALMANOR AVENUE
Sunnyvale, California, United States, 94085
United States, Colorado
Department of Neurology/Mail Stop B185, 12631 East 17Th Avenue Room 5209, Academic Office 1 Po Box 6511
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
Colorado Neurological Institute, 701 East Hampden Avenue, Suite 510
Littleton, Colorado, United States, 80113
United States, Connecticut
The Institute For Neurodegenerative Disorders, 60 Temple Street, Suite 8B
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06510
United States, Florida
University of Florida, McKnight Brain Institute Po Box 100236, 100 S Newell Drive L3-100
Gainsville, Florida, United States, 32610-5806
University of Miami, 1501 North West 9Th Avenue Second Floor, Department of Neurology D4-5
Miami, Florida, United States, 33136
University of South Florida, 4 Columbia Drive, Suite 410
Tampa, Florida, United States, 33606
United States, Georgia
Emory University School of Medicine, Wesley Woods Health Center, 1841 Clifton Road NE Room 328
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30329
Movement Disorders Program, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia
Augusta, Georgia, United States, 30912
United States, Illinois
Rush University Medical Center Department of Neurological Sciences, 1725 West Harrison Suite 755
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60612
University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Mc2030
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60637
Northwestern University, 710 North Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611
United States, Indiana
Indiana University School of Medicine, Outpatient Clinical Research Facility, 535 Barnhill Drive Room #150
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202
United States, Iowa
University of Iowa Hospitals, 2133 Rcp Department of Neurology, 200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, Iowa, United States, 52242
United States, Kansas
The University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Neurology Ms #2012, 3599 Rainbow Boulevard
Kansas City, Kansas, United States, 66160
United States, Kentucky
University of Louisville, Movement Disorder Clinic, Frazier Rehab, 220 Abraham Flexner, Suite 606
Louisville, Kentucky, United States, 40202
United States, Louisiana
Ochsner Clinic Foundation, 1514 Jefferson Highway, Dept of Neurology 7Th Floor
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70121
Lsuhsc Shreveport, Department of Neurology, 1501 Kings Highway Room 3-436
Shreveport, Louisiana, United States, 71103
United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins, 601 North Caroline Street, Suite 5064
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21287-0875
University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 South Greene Street, N4 W49-B
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201
Parkinson & Movement Dis Center If Maryland, 8180 Lark Brown Road, Suite 101
Elkridge, Maryland, United States, 21075
United States, Massachusetts
Boston University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, 715 Albany Street C329
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Shapiro 809D
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02215
United States, Minnesota
University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mmc 295
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55455
United States, Missouri
Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid, Box 8111
St Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110-1093
United States, New York
Albany Medical College, Parkinson'S Disease & Movement Disorders Ctr, 47 New Scottland Avenue
Albany, New York, United States, 12208
JACOBI MEDICAL CENTER, 1400 Pelham Pkwy S
Bronx, New York, United States, 10461
Suny Downstate Medical Center , 450 Clarkson Avenue , Box 1213
Brooklyn, New York, United States, 11203
Northshore-Lij Health System, the Feinstein Institute Fpr Medical Research, 350 Community Drive Room 100
Manhasset, New York, United States, 11030
Weill Medical College of Cornell
New York, New York, United States, 10021
Beth Israel Medical Center, Phillips Ambulatory Care Center, 10 Union Square East Room 5Ho1
New York, New York, United States, 10003
Parkinson`S Dis & Movement Disorders Inst, 428 East 72Nd Street, Suite 400
New York, New York, United States, 10021
Beth Israel Medical Center, 10 Union Square East, Suite 5Hh2
New York, New York, United States, 10003
Columbia University, 710 West 168Th Street, 3Rd Floor
New York, New York, United States, 10032
University of Rochester Department of Neurology, 919 Westfall Road Building C Suite 220
Rochester, New York, United States, 14618
United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center, Duke Health Center At Morreene Road, 932 Morreene Road Room 213
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27705
United States, Ohio
University Neurology Inc., 222 Piedmont Avenue, Suite 3200
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45219
The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue S-31
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
Ohio State University Medical Center, 1581 Dodd Drive, 371 McCampbell Hall
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43210
University of Toledo , 3000 Arlington Avenue , Mail Stop 1195
Toledo, Ohio, United States, 43614
United States, Oregon
Oregon Health & Science University, Dept of Neurology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road Op-32
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97239-3098
United States, Pennsylvania
Penn State Milton S Hershey Med Center, Department of Neurology Mc H109 Room 2846, 500 University Drive Po Box 850
Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States, 17033
University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Hospital Department of Neurology, 330 South 9Th Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19107
United States, Rhode Island
Neurohealth Parkinson'S Disease, Movement Disorder Center, 227 Centerville Road
Warwick, Rhode Island, United States, 02886
United States, South Carolina
Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston Memorial Hospital, 326 Calhoun Street Suite 308
Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 29401
United States, Tennessee
Semmes Murphey Clinic, 1211 Union Avenue, Suite 200
Memphis, Tennessee, United States, 38104
United States, Texas
Baylor College of Medicine - Parkinson'S, Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, 65501 Fannin St, Suite 1801
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
United States, Vermont
University of Vermont , Department of Neurology Given Building C-219 , 89 Beaumont Avenue
Burlington, Vermont, United States, 05405
United States, Washington
Booth Gardner Parkinson'S Care Center, 13030 121St Way North East Suite 203
Kirkland, Washington, United States, 98034
United States, Wisconsin
Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Neurology, 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 53226-0099
Canada, Alberta
Un of Calgary Movement Disorders Program, Dept of Clin Neurosciences Area 3 Neurology, 3350 Hospital Dr NW Health Sciences Centre
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N4NI
University of Alberta Glenrose Rehab Hosp, Rm 0601 Glen East, 10230 - 111 Avenue
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5G 0B7
Canada, Ontario
London Health Sciences Centre, University Campus Room 10N29, 339 Windermere Road
London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5A5
The Ottawa Hospital-Civic Campus, 1053 Carling Avenue C2 Room 2210
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1Y 4E9
Toronto Western Hospital, Univ Health Network, 399 Bathurst Street Mc 7-402, Movement Disorders Centre
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 2S8
Canada, Quebec
CHUM-HOPITAL NOTRE DAME, 1560 rue SHERBROOKE est ROOM GR 1185, PAVILLON DECHAMPS etage rez-de-chaussee
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H2L 4M1
University of Sherbrooke, 3001 12E Avenue Nord
Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1H 5N4
Canada, Saskatchewan
Royal University Hospital, 103 Hospital Drive, Room 1663
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, S7N OW8
Canada
Quebec Memory and Motor Skills Dis Clinic, Price Building 3Rd Floor, 65 Sainte-Anne Street
Quebec, Canada, G1R 3X5
Sponsors and Collaborators
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
University of Rochester
Investigators
Principal Investigator: M. Flint Beal, MD Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York Hospital Department of Neurology
Principal Investigator: David Oakes, PhD University of Rochester, Department of Biostatistics
Principal Investigator: Ira Shoulson, MD University of Rochester, Clinical Trials Coordination Center
  More Information

Publications:
Shoulson, I, et al. Impact of sustained deprenyl (selegiline) in levodopa-treated Parkinson disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled extension of the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism trial. Annals of Neurology, 2002; 51:124-35.
Shults CW. CoQ in neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Med Chem 2003; 10(19):1917-21.

Responsible Party: Weill Medical College of Cornell University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00740714     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: U01NS050324, U01NS050573
Study First Received: August 22, 2008
Results First Received: July 24, 2012
Last Updated: December 24, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Weill Medical College of Cornell University:
Parkinson disease
PD
Coenzyme Q10
CoQ

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Coenzyme Q10
Ubiquinone
Parkinson Disease
Parkinsonian Disorders
Basal Ganglia Diseases
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Movement Disorders
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Vitamin E
Alpha-Tocopherol
Tocopherols
Tocotrienols
Vitamins
Micronutrients
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Antioxidants
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Protective Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 16, 2014