Trial Comparing Patching Versus Atropine for Amblyopia in 7 to < 13 Year Olds (ATS9)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ray Kraker, Jaeb Center for Health Research
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00315328
First received: April 14, 2006
Last updated: May 16, 2012
Last verified: May 2012
  Purpose

The purpose of this study is:

  • To compare the effectiveness of weekend atropine plus near activities and daily patching plus near activities for moderate amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) and severe amblyopia (20/125 to 20/400) in improving vision in the amblyopic eye of 7 to <13 year olds.
  • To determine the maximum improvement in vision of the amblyopic eye with each treatment.
  • To determine whether amblyopia is associated with structural abnormalities of optic nerve fiber layer.

Condition Intervention Phase
Amblyopia
Drug: Atropine
Device: Patching
Procedure: Near activities
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized Trial Comparing Patching Versus Atropine for Amblyopia in 7 to < 13 Year Olds

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Jaeb Center for Health Research:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Distribution of Visual Acuity in the Amblyopic Eye at 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Visual acuity was measured in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best.

  • Mean Visual Acuity in the Amblyopic Eye at 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Visual acuity was measured in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best.

  • Distribution of Change in Visual Acuity in the Amblyopic Eye From Baseline to 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline to 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Visual acuity was measured at baseline and 17 weeks in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best. A difference between the scores at baseline and 17 weeks was calculated.

    A positive difference indicates acuity was better at 17 weeks than at baseline; a negative difference indicates acuity was worse at 17 weeks.


  • Mean Change in Visual Acuity in the Amblyopic Eye From Baseline to 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline to 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Visual acuity was measured at baseline and 17 weeks in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best. A difference between the scores at baseline and 17 weeks was calculated.

    A positive difference indicates acuity was better at 17 weeks than at baseline; a negative difference indicates acuity was worse at 17 weeks.



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Stereoacuity Measured by the Randot Preschool Test at 17 or 19 Weeks- Participants With All Causes of Moderate Amblyopia [ Time Frame: 17 or 19 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Randot Preschool Stereotest measures stereopsis from 800 to 40 seconds of arc on patients as young as 2 years of age. This Stereotest is designed as a matching game in which the patient matches pictures in a test booklet wearing special glasses. A subject can fail the pretest (not see any pictures) or can score >800 (the worst), 800, 400, 200, 100, 60, or 40 (the best) seconds of arc. If two shapes are identified correctly the patient progresses to the next lower stereoacuity level. A failed test occurs when the patient cannot identify any shapes.

  • Stereoacuity Measured by the Randot Preschool Test at 17 or 19 Weeks- Anisometropic Participants With Moderate Amblyopia Only [ Time Frame: 17 or 19 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Randot Preschool Stereotest measures stereopsis from 800 to 40 seconds of arc on patients as young as 2 years of age. This Stereotest is designed as a matching game in which the patient matches pictures in a test booklet wearing special glasses. A subject can fail the pretest (not see any pictures) or can score >800 (the worst), 800, 400, 200, 100, 60, or 40 (the best) seconds of arc. If two shapes are identified correctly the patient progresses to the next lower stereoacuity level. A failed test occurs when the patient cannot identify any shapes.

  • Stereoacuity Measured by the Randot Preschool Test at 17 or 19 Weeks- Participants With Moderate Amblyopia From Strabismus Only or Combined Mechanism [ Time Frame: 17 or 19 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Randot Preschool Stereotest measures stereopsis from 800 to 40 seconds of arc on patients as young as 2 years of age. This Stereotest is designed as a matching game in which the patient matches pictures in a test booklet wearing special glasses. A subject can fail the pretest (not see any pictures) or can score >800 (the worst), 800, 400, 200, 100, 60, or 40 (the best) seconds of arc. If two shapes are identified correctly the patient progresses to the next lower stereoacuity level. A failed test occurs when the patient cannot identify any shapes.

  • Stereoacuity Measured by the Randot Preschool Test at 17 or 19 Weeks- Participants With All Causes of Moderate Amblyopia [ Time Frame: 17 or 19 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Stereoacuity is scored as seconds of arc with values of: <800, 800, 400, 200, 100, 60, 40. The lower the arc second value, the better the score (i.e. 40 arc sec is best stereoacuity; <800 is the worst). A change score was defined as the difference between baseline and outcome in score level (i.e. moving from 800 at baseline to 400 at outcome is one level change, moving from 800 to 200 is two levels, etc.) change in levels was categorized as "within one level" meaning change was -1, 0, or +1.

  • Amblyopia Treatment Index - Social Stigma (Moderate Amblyopia Only) [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Questionnaire scores on the Social Stigma subscale of the Amblyopia Treatment Index. Questions were evaluated on a likert type scale as strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1), with a higher number indicating worse response.

  • Amblyopia Treatment Index - Compliance (Moderate Amblyopia Only) [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Questionnaire scores on the compliance subscale of the Amblyopia Treatment Index. Questions were evaluated on a likert type scale as strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1), with a higher number indicating worse response.

  • Amblyopia Treatment Index - Adverse Effects Scale (Moderate Amblyopia Only) [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Questionnaire scores on the adverse events subscale of the Amblyopia Treatment Index. Questions were evaluated on a likert type scale as strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1), with a higher number indicating worse response.

  • Distribution of Visual Acuity in the Fellow Eye at 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Visual acuity was measured in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best.

  • Mean Visual Acuity in the Fellow Eye at 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Visual acuity was measured in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best.

  • Distribution of Change in Visual Acuity in the Fellow Eye From Baseline to 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline to 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Visual acuity was measured at baseline and 17 weeks in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best. A difference between the scores at baseline and 17 weeks was calculated.

    A positive difference indicates acuity was better at 17 weeks than at baseline; a negative difference indicates acuity was worse at 17 weeks.


  • Mean Change in Visual Acuity in the Fellow Eye From Baseline to 17 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline to 17 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Visual acuity was measured at baseline and 17 weeks in each eye using the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (E-ETDRS) method which resulted in a letter score that could range from 0 to 97 letters, with 0 being the worst and 97 being the best. A difference between the scores at baseline and 17 weeks was calculated.

    A positive difference indicates acuity was better at 17 weeks than at baseline; a negative difference indicates acuity was worse at 17 weeks.



Enrollment: 233
Study Start Date: August 2005
Study Completion Date: January 2008
Primary Completion Date: December 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Patching
Patching 2 hours per day plus near activities for one hour while patching (with increase to 4 hours per day for moderate amblyopes and >4 hours per day for severe amblyopes at 5 weeks if acuity not improved at least 5 letters)
Device: Patching
Patching 2 hours per day
Other Name: Coverlet, 3M Opticlude, Ortopad®
Procedure: Near activities
near visual activities for at least one hour per day
Active Comparator: Atropine
Atropine 1% once each weekend day in the sound eye plus near activities for at least one hour every day (with increase to daily atropine at 5 weeks if acuity not improved by at least 5 letters)
Drug: Atropine
Atropine 1% each weekend day in the sound eye
Other Name: Atropine
Procedure: Near activities
near visual activities for at least one hour per day

  Hide Detailed Description

Detailed Description:

Although there is consensus that amblyopia can be treated effectively in young children, many eye care practitioners believe that treatment beyond a certain age is ineffective. Some clinicians have believed that a treatment response is unlikely after the age of 6 or 7 years, while others have considered age 9 or 10 years to be the upper age limit for successful treatment. The American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Pattern for amblyopia recommends treatment up to age 10 years. The opinion that amblyopia treatment is ineffective in older children may have arisen because the age of 6 to 7 years is thought to be the end of the "critical period" for visual development in humans. This belief, however, was not based on adequate prospectively-collected data.

To address this issue of the response of amblyopia to treatment in children 7 years and older, the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (PEDIG) conducted a randomized trial of 507 patients (aged 7 to <18 years) with amblyopic eye visual acuity ranging from 20/40 to 20/400. Patients were provided with optimal optical correction and then randomized to a Treatment Group (2 to 6 hours per day of prescribed patching of the sound eye combined with near visual activities for all patients plus atropine one drop per day in the sound eye for 7 to <13 year olds) or an Optical Correction Group (optical correction alone). Patients whose amblyopic eye acuity improved 10 or more letters (2 lines) by 24 weeks were considered responders. In the 7 to <13 year olds (N=404), 53% of the Treatment Group were responders compared with 25% of the Optical Correction Group (P<0.001). In the 13 to <18 year olds (N=103), the responder rates were 25% and 23% respectively overall (adjusted P=0.22), but 47% and 20% respectively among patients not previously treated with patching and/or atropine for amblyopia (adjusted P=0.03). Most patients, including responders, were left with a residual visual acuity deficit.

The use of multiple modalities (patching, atropine, near visual activities) in the treatment regimen for the 7 to <13 year olds in this trial (ATS3) was an effort to maximize the therapeutic response. Patients age 13 years and older were prescribed patching but not atropine because of concern that the continual optical blur from the atropine could have a deleterious effect on their ability to drive and perform other activities. Prescribed patching was 2 to 6 hours a day to limit patch wear to non-school hours and because our prior studies of 3 to <7 year olds demonstrated that as little as two hours of patching a day (when combined with near visual activities) is as effective as a greater number of hours. Instructing patients to perform at least one hour of near activities while wearing the patch was based on the unproven clinical opinion that near activities can augment the effect of the occlusion therapy. A PEDIG pilot study suggested that near activities are beneficial and this question of benefit of near activities is currently being studied in another randomized clinical trial. Atropine placed in the sound eye once a day and two days a week has been demonstrated in younger children to be beneficial to the acuity of the amblyopic eye, presumably due to its cycloplegic effect of blurring vision in the sound eye especially at near fixation. In a study comparing daily and weekend atropine, daily atropine was not found to be superior.

The unanswered question from this completed clinical trial is whether prescribing patching or atropine alone could have produced a response similar to the combination therapy, or whether in this age group, one treatment is better than the other. A poll of PEDIG investigators at an investigator meeting on January 15, 2005 indicated that very few are following the treatment regimen used in the prior study (ATS3); rather, most are prescribing monotherapy—either patching or atropine—as the initial treatment for amblyopia in the 7 to <13 year age range. Thus, a trial comparing atropine and patching as amblyopia treatments in 7 to <13 year olds is needed.

The study has been designed as a simple trial that, other than the type of amblyopia therapy being determined through the randomization process, approximates standard clinical practice. The two treatment regimes are: 1) Atropine 1% once each weekend day in the sound eye plus near activities for at least one hour every day without the aid of reading glasses (with increase to daily atropine at 5 weeks if acuity not improved by at least 5 letters) and 2) Patching 2 hours per day plus near activities for one hour while patching (with increase to 4 hours per day for moderate amblyopes and > 4 hours per day for severe amblyopes at 5 weeks if acuity not improved by at least 5 letters).

Optional Ancillary Study As part of the optic nerve imaging ancillary study, retinal nerve fiber layer imaging using optical coherence tomography will be performed on some patients. This will be optional for patients at participating sites. The procedure is not part of standard care. The subject's pupils will need to be dilated, if not already dilated as part of the exam. Testing of both eyes can be completed in about 15 minutes.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   7 Years to 12 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 7 to 12 years old (inclusive)
  • Amblyopia associated with strabismus, anisometropia, or both
  • Visual acuity in the amblyopic eye 19 to 71 letters on Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS©) (20/40 to 20/400 inclusive)
  • Visual acuity in the sound eye 79 letters or better on E-ETDRS© (20/25 or better)
  • Interocular difference >=15 letters (3 lines)
  • Spectacles, if needed, worn for at least 16 weeks or visual acuity documented to be stable

Inclusion Criteria for Optional Ancillary Study:

  • Enrolled into the main study
  • Refractive error in both eyes between -0.25 and +5.00D, inclusive (to avoid the need to adjust for refractive error)
  • Birth weight >1500 grams
  • No history of Central Nervous System (CNS) disease (e.g. intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), meningitis, developmental abnormalities of the brain, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Amblyopia treatment (other than spectacles) in the last 6 months
  • Myopia (more than -0.25D spherical equivalent) in either eye
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00315328

Locations
United States, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania College of Optometry
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19141
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15213
Sponsors and Collaborators
Jaeb Center for Health Research
Investigators
Study Chair: Richard W. Hertle, M.D. Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
Study Chair: Mitchell M. Scheiman, O.D. Pennsylvania College of Optometry
  More Information

Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Ray Kraker, Director, PEDIG Coordinating Center, Jaeb Center for Health Research
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00315328     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NEI-119, 2U10EY011751
Study First Received: April 14, 2006
Results First Received: September 9, 2009
Last Updated: May 16, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Jaeb Center for Health Research:
Amblyopia
Atropine
Patching

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Amblyopia
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vision Disorders
Sensation Disorders
Neurologic Manifestations
Eye Diseases
Signs and Symptoms
Atropine
Adjuvants, Anesthesia
Central Nervous System Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Pharmacologic Actions
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
Cardiovascular Agents
Bronchodilator Agents
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Asthmatic Agents
Respiratory System Agents
Mydriatics
Parasympatholytics
Muscarinic Antagonists
Cholinergic Antagonists
Cholinergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 23, 2014