The ORIGIN Trial (Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Population Health Research Institute
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sanofi
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00069784
First received: October 1, 2003
Last updated: January 24, 2013
Last verified: January 2013
  Purpose

The primary objectives of the ORIGIN study were:

  • To determine whether insulin glargine-mediated normoglycemia can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and/or mortality in people at high risk for vascular disease with either Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) or early type 2 diabetes;
  • To determine whether omega-3 fatty acids can reduce cardiovascular mortality in people with IFG, IGT or early type 2 diabetes.

The secondary objectives of the insulin glargine study were to determine if insulin glargine-mediated normoglycemia can reduce:

  • total mortality (all causes);
  • the risk of diabetic microvascular outcomes;
  • the rate of progression of IGT or IFG to type 2 diabetes.

Condition Intervention Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent
Drug: insulin glargine (HOE901)
Drug: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
Drug: placebo
Device: reusable pen device for insulin injection
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Multicenter, International Randomized, 2x2 Factorial Design Study to Evaluate the Effects of Lantus (Insulin Glargine) Versus Standard Care, and of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Versus Placebo, in Reducing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in High Risk People With Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) or Early Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The ORIGIN Trial (Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Sanofi:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Composite of the First Occurrence of Cardiovascular (CV) Death, Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Nonfatal Stroke [ Time Frame: from randomization until study cut-off date (median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Number of participants with a first occurrence of one of the above events.

    The outcome's evaluation is based on the number of such positively-adjudicated first events occurring for patients assigned to the study groups. Assessments of the above events were reviewed by the Event Adjudication Committee who was kept blinded to the group assignment of participants.

    Statistical analysis is performed on the time from randomization to the first occurrence of the events. Number of participants with a composite endpoint (i.e. with first occurrence of CV death, nonfatal MI or nonfatal stroke) is provided in the first row of the statistical table.


  • Composite of the First Occurrence of Cardiovascular (CV) Death, Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction (MI), Nonfatal Stroke, Revascularization Procedure or Hospitalization for Heart Failure (HF) [ Time Frame: from randomization until study cut-off date (median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Number of participants with a first occurrence of one of the above events (revascularization procedures included coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) i.e. balloon, PTCA with stent, other percutaneous intervention, carotid angioplasty with/without stent, carotid endarterectomy, peripheral angioplasty with or without stent, peripheral vascular surgery, and limb amputation due to vascular disease).

    The outcome's evaluation is based on the number of such positively-adjudicated first events occurring for patients assigned to the study groups. Assessments of the above events were reviewed by the Event Adjudication Committee who was kept blinded to the group assignment of participants.

    Statistical analysis is performed on the time from randomization to the first occurrence of the events. Number of participants with a composite endpoint (i.e. with first occurrence of the events) is provided in the first row of the statistical table.



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Total Mortality (All Causes) [ Time Frame: from randomization until study cut-off date (median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of deaths due to any cause

  • Composite Diabetic Microvascular Outcome (Kidney or Eye Disease) [ Time Frame: from randomization until study cut-off date (median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    The composite outcome used to analyze microvascular disease progression contained components of clinical events:

    • the occurrence of laser surgery or vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy (DR);
    • the development of blindness due to DR;
    • the occurrence of renal death or renal replacement therapy; as well as the following laboratory-based events:
    • doubling of serum creatinine; or
    • progression of albuminuria (from none to microalbuminuria [at least 30 mg/g creatinine], to macroalbuminuria [at least 300 mg/g creatinine]).

  • Incidence of Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Participants With IGT and/or IFG [ Time Frame: from randomization until the last follow-up visit or last OGTT (median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The incidence was determined by calculating the proportion of randomized participants without diabetes at randomization who either developed diabetes during the study or who were classified as having possible diabetes based on results of two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) performed after the last follow-up visit (within 21-28 days for OGTT#1 and within 10-14 weeks for OGTT#2).


Other Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Patients With Various Types of Symptomatic Hypoglycemia Events [ Time Frame: on-treatment period (median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Symptomatic hypoglycemia was defined as an event with clinical symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia, based on data recorded in the participant's diary. These were further categorized as confirmed (ie, with a concomitant home glucose reading ≤54 mg/dL [≤3.0 mmol/L]) or unconfirmed.

    Severe hypoglycemia was defined as an event with clinical symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia in which the participant required the assistance of another person, and one of the following:

    • the event was associated with a documented self-measured or laboratory plasma glucose level ≤36 mg/dL (≤2.0 mmol/L), or
    • the event was associated with prompt recovery after oral carbohydrate, intravenous glucose, or glucagon administration.

  • Number of Patients With First Occurrence of Any Type of Cancer [ Time Frame: from randomization until study cut-off date (median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Data on cancers that occurred in association with hospitalizations were collected systematically in both groups from the start of the study. All reported cancers occurring during the trial (new or recurrent) were adjudicated by the Event Adjudication Committee.


Enrollment: 12537
Study Start Date: August 2003
Study Completion Date: December 2011
Primary Completion Date: December 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Insulin glargine + omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Insulin glargine once daily by subcutaneous injection in a titrated regimen targeting a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of ≤95 mg/dL (5.3 mmol/L)
  • One capsule of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids once daily
Drug: insulin glargine (HOE901)
Cartridges for use in a pen device, each containing 3 mL of insulin glargine 100 U/mL solution for injection
Other Name: Lantus®
Drug: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
Gelatin capsules (containing icosapent ethyl esters 465 mg and doconexent ethyl esters 375 mg) for oral administration
Other Name: Omacor®
Device: reusable pen device for insulin injection
Other Name: OptiPen® Pro 1
Experimental: Insulin glargine + placebo
  • Insulin glargine once daily by subcutaneous injection in a titrated regimen targeting a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of ≤95 mg/dL (5.3 mmol/L)
  • One capsule of placebo once daily
Drug: insulin glargine (HOE901)
Cartridges for use in a pen device, each containing 3 mL of insulin glargine 100 U/mL solution for injection
Other Name: Lantus®
Drug: placebo
Matching placebo gelatin capsules (containing olive oil) for oral administration
Device: reusable pen device for insulin injection
Other Name: OptiPen® Pro 1
Experimental: Standard care + omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
• One capsule of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids once daily
Drug: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
Gelatin capsules (containing icosapent ethyl esters 465 mg and doconexent ethyl esters 375 mg) for oral administration
Other Name: Omacor®
Placebo Comparator: Standard care + placebo
• One capsule of placebo once daily
Drug: placebo
Matching placebo gelatin capsules (containing olive oil) for oral administration

Detailed Description:

The ORIGIN study was conducted by the Population Health Research Institute in Hamilton, Ontario (Canada), working in conjunction with the sponsor, and an independent Steering Committee.

Routine visits were to occur at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks following randomization, then every four months for the rest of the study, for all participants

The duration of the study was based on the number of events observed (event-driven study) and was originally planned to be 5 years. In 2008-2009 ORIGIN's follow-up was extended by approximately 2 years, because of published literature of completed studies suggesting that a longer period of effective glycemic contrast between treatments might be needed to see an effect on cardiovascular events.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion criteria:

I1. Individuals with IFG and/or IGT, or early diabetes, as defined below.

Glucose tolerance status was determined by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) that was performed fasting (ie, no consumption of food or beverage other than water for at least 8 hours) at the time of screening for all candidates who were not known to have diabetes. The qualifying OGTT could be obtained up to 4 weeks prior to screening provided that anti-diabetic therapy (if any) remained unchanged between the qualifying OGTT and the screening visit. Two plasma glucose values were drawn during the OGTT - a fasting value (FPG) and a value drawn two hours after the 75 g oral glucose load was administered (postprandial plasma glucose [PPG]).

- Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), defined as a PPG value ≥140 and <200 mg/dL (ie, ≥7.8 and <11.1 mmol/L), with a FPG <126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L).

OR

- Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), defined as an FPG ≥110 and <126 mg/dL (≥6.1 and <7 mmol/L), without diabetes mellitus (PPG must be <200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L]).

OR

- Early type 2 diabetes, defined as a FPG ≥126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or a PPG of ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), or a previous diagnosis of diabetes, and either:

  • on no pharmacological treatment (while ambulatory) for at least 10 weeks prior to screening, with screening glycated hemoglobin <150% of the upper limit of normal (ULN) for the laboratory (eg, <9% if the ULN is 6%)
  • or taking one oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) from among sulfonylureas (SU), biguanides, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), and meglitinides (MGTs) at a stable dose while ambulatory for at least 10 weeks at the time of screening (or for the 10 weeks prior to hospitalization if identified while hospitalized for a CV event), with screening glycated hemoglobin <133% of the ULN for the laboratory (eg, <8% if the ULN is 6%) if taking this medication at half-maximum dose or greater, and glycated hemoglobin <142% of the ULN for the laboratory (eg, <8.5% if the ULN is 6%) if taking this medication at less than half-maximum dose. Individuals taking combination products containing two or more OADs were not eligible.

I2. Men or women aged 50 years and older

I3. At least one of the following CV risk factors:

  • previous myocardial infarction (MI) (≥ 5 days prior to randomization)
  • previous stroke (≥ 5 days prior to randomization)
  • previous coronary, carotid or peripheral arterial revascularization
  • angina with documented ischemic changes (at least 2 mm ST segment depression on electrocardiogram during a Graded Exercise Test [GXT]; or with a cardiac imaging study positive for ischemia); or unstable angina with documented ischemic changes (either ST segment depression of at least 1 mm or an increase in troponin above the normal range but below the range diagnostic for acute myocardial infarction)
  • microalbuminuria or clinical albuminuria (an albumin: creatinine ratio ≥ 30 μg/mg in at least one or timed collection of urine with albumin excretion ≥20 μg/min or ≥30 mg/24 hours or total protein excretion ≥500 mg/24 hours)
  • left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram or echocardiogram
  • significant stenosis on angiography of coronary, carotid, or lower extremity arteries (ie, 50% or more stenosis)
  • ankle-brachial index < 0.9.

I4. Provision of signed and dated informed consent prior to any study procedures.

I5. Ability and willingness to complete study diaries and questionnaires.

I6. Demonstrated ability to use the self-glucose-monitoring device, and to self-inject insulin prior to randomization.

I7. A negative pregnancy test for all women of childbearing potential (ie, ovulating, pre- menopausal, and not surgically sterile) and the agreement of these women to use a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during the duration of the study .

I8. Willingness to discontinue prior omega-3 PUFA supplements for the duration of the study.

Exclusion criteria

E1. Type 1 diabetes.

E2. Requiring ambulatory insulin treatment or uncontrolled or symptomatic hyperglycemia that is likely to require the addition of ambulatory insulin therapy or a new antidiabetic agent either before or within 2 weeks after randomization.

E3. Known anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (anti-GAD Ab) positivity in the past.

E4. Screening glycated hemoglobin ≥150% of the ULN for the laboratory (eg, ≥9% if the ULN is 6%).

E5. Unwillingness to inject insulin or perform self-monitoring of blood glucose.

E6. Nonadherence to the run-in requirement to inject placebo insulin and do capillary glucose monitoring for at least 4 days prior to randomization.

E7. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) either planned at the time of screening, or CABG within the 4 years prior to screening - however, participants with angina, MI, or stroke since a previous CABG will be eligible for randomization, even if the last CABG was within 4 years.

E8. Serum creatinine >2.0 mg/dL (176 μmol/L) at screening.

E9. Active liver disease, or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >2.5 times ULN at screening.

E10. Chronic or recurrent treatment with systemic corticosteroids, or niacin treatment for hyperlipidemia.

E11. Heart failure of New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class III or IV.

E12. Expected survival of <3 years for non-CV causes such as cancer.

E13. Any other factor likely to limit protocol compliance or reporting of adverse events (AEs).

E14. Unwilling or unable to discontinue TZDs.

E15. Simultaneous participation in any other clinical trial of an active pharmacologic agent.

E16. Unwillingness to permit sites to contact their primary physicians to communicate information about the study and the participant's data and treatment assignment.

E17. History of hypersensitivity to the investigational products.

E18. Previous randomization in this study.

E19. A prior heart transplant, or awaiting a heart transplant.

E20. Known infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00069784

  Hide Study Locations
Locations
United States, New Jersey
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Bridgewater, New Jersey, United States, 08807
Argentina
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Australia, New South Wales
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Cove, New South Wales, Australia
Austria
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Vienna, Austria
Belarus
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Minsk, Belarus
Bermuda
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Hamilton, Bermuda
Brazil
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Canada, Quebec
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Laval, Quebec, Canada
Chile
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Santiago, Chile
China
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Beijing, China
Colombia
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Cali, Colombia
Croatia
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Zagreb, Croatia
Denmark
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Horsholm, Denmark
Estonia
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Tatari, Estonia
Finland
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Helsinki, Finland
France
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Paris, France
Germany
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Berlin, Germany
Hungary
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Budapest, Hungary
India
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Mumbai, India
Ireland
Makati City
Dublin, Ireland
Israel
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Netanya, Israel
Italy
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Milano, Italy
Korea, Republic of
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Latvia
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Riga, Latvia
Lithuania
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Vilnius, Lithuania
Mexico
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Mexico, Mexico
Netherlands
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Gouda, Netherlands
Norway
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Lysaker, Norway
Philippines
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Makati City, Philippines
Poland
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Warszawa, Poland
Romania
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Bucuresti, Romania
Russian Federation
Sanofi-Aventis Aministrative Office
Moscow, Russian Federation
Slovakia
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Bratislava, Slovakia
South Africa
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Midrand, South Africa
Spain
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Barcelona, Spain
Sweden
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Bromma, Sweden
Switzerland
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Geneva, Switzerland
Turkey
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Istanbul, Turkey
United Kingdom
Sanofi-Aventis Administrative Office
Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom
Venezuela
Makati City
Caracas, Venezuela
Sponsors and Collaborators
Sanofi
Population Health Research Institute
Investigators
Study Director: Clinical Sciences & Operations Sanofi
Principal Investigator: Hertzel Gerstein, M.D. McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences
Principal Investigator: Salim Yusuf, M.D. McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences
  More Information

Publications:

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

Responsible Party: Sanofi
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00069784     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: LTS6035, HOE901/4032
Study First Received: October 1, 2003
Results First Received: December 18, 2012
Last Updated: January 24, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Sanofi:
Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG)
Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Intolerance
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Hyperglycemia
Insulin, Globin Zinc
Glargine
Insulin
Insulin, Long-Acting
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 28, 2014