Obesity - Inflammation - Metabolic Disease: Effect of Lactobacillus Casei Shirota
|First Received Date ICMJE||August 13, 2010|
|Last Updated Date||February 9, 2011|
|Start Date ICMJE||April 2010|
|Primary Completion Date||November 2010 (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
||Neutrophil phagocytosis; Neutrophil oxidative burst [ Time Frame: 3 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
The Phagotest® (Orpegen Pharma, Heidelberg, Germany) is used to measure phagocytosis by using FITC-labelled opsonized E. coli bacteria.
The Phagoburst® kit (Orpegen Pharma, Heidelberg, Germany) is used to determine the percentage of neutrophils that produce reactive oxidants with or without stimulation.
|Original Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Same as current|
|Change History||Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01182844 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site|
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Same as current|
|Current Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Original Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Brief Title ICMJE||Obesity - Inflammation - Metabolic Disease: Effect of Lactobacillus Casei Shirota|
|Official Title ICMJE||Obesity - Inflammation - Metabolic Disease: Effect of Lactobacillus Casei Shirota|
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are linked by inflammation. Gut flora seems to play an important role in the development of inflammation and metabolic syndrome in obesity. Modulation of gut flora by probiotics has been shown in animal studies to positively influence inflammation and metabolic disturbances.
Lactobacillus casei Shirota is able to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by altering gut flora composition and gut permeability which leads to an improvement in neutrophil function and insulin resistance in obesity.
The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota supplementation over 12 weeks on neutrophil function (phagocytosis, oxidative burst and TLR expression) in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Furthermore the investigators aim to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota supplementation over 12 weeks on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, inflammation, gut flora composition, gut permeability, and endotoxemia in metabolic syndrome
Introduction Obesity and metabolic disorders (type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance) are tightly linked to inflammation. Obesity, a pandemic affecting 30-50% of the adult population, is mediated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. It is well described that cytokines cause insulin resistance which causes hyperinsulinemia and excessive fat storage in adipose tissue and the liver. However, the triggering factor, linking inflammation to metabolic syndrome has not been fully elucidated yet.
Gut flora interactions Recently it has been hypothesized that the gut flora is an important factor in this vicious cycle of obesity, metabolic disease and inflammation. Firstly, metabolic activities of the gut microbiota facilitates the extraction of calories from ingested dietary substances and helps to store these calories in host adipose tissue for later use. Second, the gut bacterial flora of obese mice and humans include fewer Bacteroidetes and correspondingly more Firmicutes than that of their lean counterparts, suggesting that differences in caloric extraction of ingested food substances may be due to the composition of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, bacterial lipopolysaccharide derived from the intestinal microbiota may trigger inflammation, linking it to high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome. High-fat diet induces insulin resistance and oxidative stress in mice and is associated with increased gut permeability. high fat diet induces a low-grade endotoxemia in mice ("metabolic endotoxemia) and infusing endotoxin causes weight gain and insulin resistance. This has also been shown in humans, where patients with fatty liver had a susceptibility to higher gut permeability, possibly causing increased endotoxin levels.
Role of endotoxin Endotoxin and Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is elevated in obese patients, patients with type 2 diabetes and patients with liver steatosis. Endotoxin causes a significant increase in proinflammatory cytokine production in adipocytes via a TLR mediated pathway, contribution to the proinflammatory state in obesity. Endotoxin levels correlate with adiponectin and insulin suggesting a pathophysiological link between obesity, inflammation and metabolic disease.
Consequences of chronic inflammation in obesity As described above, endotoxin is related to increased inflammation and oxidative stress, causing insulin resistance. Adipocytes have been shown to play a dynamic role in regulation of inflammation by producing cytokines via a Toll-like receptor (TLR)/Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFkB) mediated pathway.But not only adipocytes are in a proinflammatory state - also circulating mononuclear cells have been described to be activated. Clinical evidence suggests immune dysfunction in obesity, since obese patients are more prone to infections after surgery, higher incidence of lower respiratory infection which is also underlined by impairment of cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro and a reduced intracellular killing by neutrophils.
A similar situation has been recently described in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis, which is also a proinflammatory condition with impaired innate immunity, leading to infection. Endotoxin has been described as a key mediator and inadequate activation of neutrophils leading to high oxidative burst and energy depletion of the cells with consecutive impaired phagocytic capacity has been described.
Effects of modulating gut flora The most effective therapy of obesity - weight loss - leads to significant improvement of mononuclear cell activation. However, there is no data available on the effect of weight loss on gut flora, gut permeability and endotoxin.
Since weight loss is usually very hard to achieve, other therapeutic strategies have been tested. Since gut flora seems to be crucial in the development of the vicious cycle of obesity, inflammation and metabolic disease, several studies tried to modify the composition of gut microbiota. In mice treatment with antibiotics improved glucose tolerance by altering expression of genes involved in inflammation and metabolism. A similar result was found in mice treated with a probiotic that increases the number of Bifidobacterium spp., which leads to improved glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and a decrease in inflammatory tone. Finally treatment of mice with a probiotic decreased hepatic insulin resistance via a JNK and NFkB pathway, supporting the concept that intestinal bacteria induce endogenous signals that play a pathogenic role in hepatic insulin resistance.
Which probiotic? Among the vast amount of bacteria described to alter gut flora and exert positive effects on the host, we have chosen to study Lactobacillus casei Shirota several reasons: Firstly this commercially available preparation delivers a high bacterial number in a relatively small volume and is available as a palatable milk drink. Furthermore Lactobacillus casei Shirota has been proven to survive the passage through the stomach and is present in the lower intestinal tract. It has also been shown that this bacterial strain can increases the amount of Lactobacilli and decreases the number of gram-negative organisms in the bacterial flora. This bacterial strain has been shown to be effective in modulating natural killer cell function and neutrophil function.
We hypothesize that Lactobacillus casei Shirota is able to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by altering gut flora composition and gut permeability which leads to an improvement in neutrophil function and insulin resistance in obesity
Plan of investigations
30 Patients with metabolic syndrome and increased gut permeability will be randomized to either receive food supplementation with a milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (3 bottles a day, 65 ml each, containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota at a concentration of 108/ml) for twelve weeks or standard medical therapy.
|Study Type ICMJE||Interventional|
|Study Phase||Not Provided|
|Study Design ICMJE||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Condition ICMJE||Metabolic Syndrome|
|Intervention ICMJE||Dietary Supplement: Lactobacillus casei Shirota
3 bottles of Yakult(R) light per day
Other Name: Yakult
|Study Arm (s)||
|Publications *||Leber B, Tripolt NJ, Blattl D, Eder M, Wascher TC, Pieber TR, Stauber R, Sourij H, Oettl K, Stadlbauer V. The influence of probiotic supplementation on gut permeability in patients with metabolic syndrome: an open label, randomized pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;66(10):1110-5. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.103. Epub 2012 Aug 8.|
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status ICMJE||Completed|
|Completion Date||December 2010|
|Primary Completion Date||November 2010 (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Eligibility Criteria ICMJE||
|Ages||18 Years and older|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers||Yes|
|Contacts ICMJE||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Location Countries ICMJE||Austria|
|NCT Number ICMJE||NCT01182844|
|Other Study ID Numbers ICMJE||vs09.2008|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||Yes|
|Responsible Party||Vanessa Stadlbauer, MD, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Austria|
|Study Sponsor ICMJE||Medical University of Graz|
|Collaborators ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Information Provided By||Medical University of Graz|
|Verification Date||February 2011|
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