Energy Expenditure in Breast and Bottle Feeding Preterm Infants Fed Their Mother's Breast Milk

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by:
Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00838188
First received: February 5, 2009
Last updated: NA
Last verified: February 2009
History: No changes posted

February 5, 2009
February 5, 2009
November 2007
Not Provided
The primary goal of this study was to compare resting energy expenditure (REE) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' expressed milk by bottle and at the breast [ Time Frame: 20 minutes after each meal ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Same as current
No Changes Posted
Creamatocrit of the bottle at the beginning and the completion of every feeding at the breast were measured [ Time Frame: Not relevant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Same as current
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Energy Expenditure in Breast and Bottle Feeding Preterm Infants Fed Their Mother's Breast Milk
Energy Expenditure in Breast and Bottle Feeding Preterm Infants Fed Their Mother's Breast Milk

OBJECTIVE. Neonatologists consider early feeding at the breast to be too tiring for preterm infants, although there is no evidence that this is actually the case. It is also not known whether the method of feeding affects energy expenditure. We hypothesized that resting energy expenditure (REE) would be higher after breastfeeding than after bottle feeding.

PATIENTS AND METHODS. preterm ( >32 weeks GA) stable infants who are nourished entirely by their mothers' breast milk will be studied when fed expressed breast milk either by bottle or at the breast. REE will be measured for 20 minutes after feeding. Breast milk quantity is evaluated by pre- and post feeding weighing.

Most VLBW infants cannot be fed at the breast upon birth, and expressed breast milk by gastric tube is thus recommended. Sucking skills mature at around 34 weeks when nipple-feeding is introduced. In the absence of evidence-based data to decide the best timing to introduce breastfeeding, many clinicians use empiric criteria, such as the infant's weight, gestational age, and the ability of infants to bottle feed as proxies of readiness to breastfeed. Despite some evidence of physiological benefits of preterm infants feeding at the breast, many neonatologists consider direct breastfeeding to be too fatiguing for preterm infants. It is not known, however, whether preterm infants who are breastfed expend more energy than bottle-fed infants

Observational
Observational Model: Case-Crossover
Time Perspective: Prospective
Not Provided
Retention:   Samples Without DNA
Description:

Maternal breast milk

Non-Probability Sample

Preterm infants born after 32 weeks of gestation, when they reached the corrected gestational age of 34 weeks or more.

Preterm Infants
Other: Way of Feeding - Breast feeding vs. Bottle feeding
Each infant was evaluated twice, once after breastfeeding and once after bottle feeding of breast. Computer-generated random numbers in sealed opaque envelopes to assign the breast/bottle sequence
  • 1
    computer-generated random numbers in sealed opaque envelopes to assign the breast/bottle sequence
    Intervention: Other: Way of Feeding - Breast feeding vs. Bottle feeding
  • 2
    computer-generated random numbers in sealed opaque envelopes to assign the breast/bottle sequence
    Intervention: Other: Way of Feeding - Breast feeding vs. Bottle feeding
  • Breast - feeding first
    computer-generated random numbers in sealed opaque envelopes to assign the breast/bottle sequence
    Intervention: Other: Way of Feeding - Breast feeding vs. Bottle feeding
  • Bottle first
    computer-generated random numbers in sealed opaque envelopes to assign the breast/bottle sequence
    Intervention: Other: Way of Feeding - Breast feeding vs. Bottle feeding
  • Way of feeding
    Each infant is evaluated twice, once after breastfeeding and once after bottle feeding of breast milk using a Premature Nipple & Ring (Ross Products Division, Columbus OH, USA). In this way, each infant serves as its own control. REE is recorded for 20 minutes after each meal
    Intervention: Other: Way of Feeding - Breast feeding vs. Bottle feeding
Berger I, Weintraub V, Dollberg S, Kopolovitz R, Mandel D. Energy expenditure for breastfeeding and bottle-feeding preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2009 Dec;124(6):e1149-52. Epub 2009 Nov 23.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
23
March 2008
Not Provided

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Thermally stable infants were nursed in an open and unwarmed bassinet.
  • All fed solely by their mothers' breast milk equivalent to at least 150 cc/kg/day divided into eight meals and growing steadily

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Infants with congenital anomalies and infants who had either more than five daily episodes of apnea of prematurity or any apnea requiring assistance or methylxanthine therapy
Both
34 Weeks to 40 Weeks
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Israel
 
NCT00838188
920060356
No
Irit berger Dr., Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
Not Provided
Principal Investigator: Irit Berger, MD
Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
February 2009

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP