18FDOPA in Congenital Hyperinsulinism
Low blood sugars are known to cause brain damage in newborn babies. One of the most common causes of low blood sugars persisting beyond the new born period is a condition called congenital hyperinsulinism (HI). This is a disease whereby the pancreas secretes too much insulin and causes low blood sugars. Twenty to forty percent of these babies will have brain damage. There are two forms of this disease. In one form only a small part of the pancreas makes too much insulin (focal HI) and in the other, the whole pancreas make too much insulin (diffuse HI). If a surgeon could know which part of the pancreas has the focal lesion he could remove it and cure the patient.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a new investigational drug called 18FDOPA, when used with a PET scan, can find the focal lesion and guide the surgeon to remove it, thus curing the patient and preventing further brain damage
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
|Official Title:||The Use of Fluorine F 18 6-fluorodopamine Positron Emission Tomography Combined With Computed Tomography in Congenital Hyperinsulinism|
- Positron Emission Tomography [ Time Frame: 1 day ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Positron Emission Tomography will be used to determine whether or not the uptake of a radiopharmaceutical agent, fluorine F 18 6-fluorodopamine (18FDOPA), produced in a cyclotron located at a distance far from the imaging center will produce qualitatively adequate pancreatic images in patients with congenital hyperinsulinism
- Comparative evaluation of PET image and surgical pathology map [ Time Frame: up to one month ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Investigators will directly compare pancreatic images from 18FDOPA PET combined with Computed Tomography versus the gold-standard of histopathological findings at surgery in subjects who received a partial or complete pancreatectomy
|Study Start Date:||December 2013|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||June 2019|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||January 2019 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Experimental: Pancreatic Imaging with 18FDOPA||
A dose of 18FDOPA, 3-6 MBq/Kg (0.08-0.16 mCi/kg), will be injected intravenously into the subject under the direct supervision of the radiology sub-investigator. Then, the PET imaging procedure will begin and proceed for up to 70 minutes after injection. An abdominal CT image will be made using intravenous contrast. Both images, PET and CT, will be co-localized by the radiologist for interpretation.
Congenital Hyperinsulinism (HI) is a disorder of insulin secretion that causes profound hypoglycemia leading to significant morbidity. It is the most common form of persistent neonatal hypoglycemia, and the most dangerous. Inappropriate insulin secretion causes not only hypoglycemia but also inability to release free fatty acids from adipose tissue and inability to release glycogen from the liver. Hence the brain is deprived of all the major fuel sources (glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate) for energy thus leading to the high incidence of brain damage. In up to 50% of cases of congenital hyperinsulinism, medical therapy fails and surgical resection of the pancreas is necessary. Previous techniques developed to differentiate those patients with focal HI in whom surgery could result in a cure are very invasive and put the infants at risk for hypoglycemic brain damage or arterial thrombosis.
It is known that the beta cells in the pancreatic islets, similar to other neuroendocrine tissues, contain amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Beta cells take up L-Dopa and convert it into dopamine by AADC. It was proposed that as other neuroendocrine tumors such as phaeochromocytoma and carcinoid tumors express AADC and can be very easily visualized using 18FDOPA PET then so also would the pancreas be easily and accurately visualized. After initial reports demonstrated the effectiveness, safety and accuracy, there have been now over 200 patients with HI reported in the literature who have had 18FDOPA PET scans with suggestions that referral to major HI centers for 18FDOPA PET CT is now an integral part of standard of care management of patients with HI that require surgery. 18FDOPA PET scanning for patients with Hyperinsulinism is now established in Europe and Australia, and has close to 95% sensitivity. When linked to Computed Tomography (CT) image of the pancreas, 18FDOPA PET allows the surgeon to image the pancreas in three dimensions, to even more accurately identify the site of the focal lesion, increasing the chance of a sufficient partial pancreatectomy to cure the patient.
The objectives of this study are:
- . To determine, using Positron Emission Tomography, the qualitative uptake of a radiopharmaceutical agent, 18FDOPA, produced at a distance far from the imaging center, in the pancreas of patients with congenital hyperinsulinism.
- . To determine whether, using a method of Computed Tomography Scanning combined with 18FDOPA, pancreatic imaging will match the surgical histopathological findings of focal vs. diffuse islet cell abnormalities in patients with congenital hyperinsulinism who receive partial or complete pancreatectomy to treat their disease.
|Contact: Heather Urbanek, CRCfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|United States, Texas|
|Cook Children's Medical Center||Recruiting|
|Fort Worth, Texas, United States, 76104|
|Principal Investigator: Paul Thornton, MD|
|Principal Investigator:||Paul Thornton, MD||Cook Children's Health Care System|