Primary Outcome Measures:
- rScO2 desaturation data collection [ Time Frame: During Surgery ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Brain injury after cardiac surgery is a chief source of patient mortality and healthcare costs and can significantly impair quality of life. Reducing the burden of this complication has wide public health implications. The broad manifestations of perioperative brain injury include stroke, delirium, and cognitive decline.5 All forms of injury are believed to result primarily from cerebral embolism and/or reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). The risk for cerebral hypoperfusion is likely the highest during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), when mean arterial pressure (MAP) is kept low (~60 mmHg), particularly for patients who are aged and who have cerebral vascular disease. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used increasingly to monitor regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, although limited data show that it improves patient outcomes. Regardless, clinical evidence supporting the efficacy of NIRS-based monitoring is needed urgently because the cost of NIRS sensors (~$220/patient) could add $132 million annually to hospital costs for cardiac surgery. We must address this issue quickly because the rising prevalence of NIRS use and advocacy by experts and industry will likely soon result in NIRS becoming a standard of care. We are in the process of submitting a multicenter, prospectively randomized comparative effectiveness trial to assess the efficacy of NIRS monitoring in patients who are undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with CPB, and/or valve surgery, and who are at risk for brain injury. The goal of the planned proposal is to determine whether interventions to correct rScO2 desaturations (value <50% or 20% reduction from room air baseline) reduce the frequency of neurologic and other complications compared with standard care (no clinical monitoring). In order to demonstrate feasibility of our proposal we need to demonstrate the ability of the team to collect rScO2 data from multiple centers and to show the ability of the team to properly follow an algorithm for treating rScO2 desaturations that occur during surgery. Thus, the aim of the current study is to collect preliminary data to support our larger comparative effectiveness trial.