Primary Outcome Measures:
- Develop and optimize a renal functional MRI protocol consisting of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI), Blood-Oxygen- Level-Dependent MRI (BOLD-MRI), Arterial Spin Labeling MRI (ASL-MRI), and T1rho-MRI. [ Time Frame: Day 1 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- Compare renal functional MRI cross-sectional readouts between normal healthy volunteers (NHV) and LN subjects. [ Time Frame: MRI within 7 days of renal biopsy ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- The mean difference between NHV and LN groups in renal structural and functional MRI measurements. [ Time Frame: Day 1 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- The test-retest reliability and sensitivity of renal functional MRI measurements to detect renal inflammatory activity or damage in NHV and subjects with LN. [ Time Frame: Day 1 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Renal imaging by functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the ability to measure changes in the tissue associated with renal inflammatory activity and/or damage, namely changes in diffusion, perfusion, and oxygenation. Therefore, it may be a promising approach for the evaluation of LN and response to treatment. Thus, the ability to accurately and noninvasively evaluate these factors directly would aid in the treatment of LN.