Brain Nicotine Receptor Density in Veteran Smokers (BNRDVS)
Cigarette smoking is more prevalent among Veterans (27%) than the general U.S. population (21%). Smoking is common among people who use marijuana or caffeine heavily, and the use of menthol cigarettes is becoming increasingly common, affecting approximately 9% of the Veteran population. Recent research by our group and others indicates that heavy marijuana or caffeine use, or the use of predominantly menthol cigarettes, can alter brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) densities. For the proposed study, brain imaging with PET scanning will be used to determine nicotine receptor densities in Veteran cigarette smokers with and without heavy marijuana or caffeine use, and in menthol and non-menthol Veteran smokers. Results of the proposed research may have implications for improving treatments for Veterans who smoke cigarettes and who have specific drug use co-morbidities or who use menthol cigarettes.
Positron Emission Tomography
|Study Design:||Time Perspective: Prospective|
|Official Title:||Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density and Veteran Cigarette Smokers|
- Rating scales, 2-FA PET scan, and MRI scan [ Time Frame: Primary outcome measures will be determined over approximately 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]The PET scan will determine relative densities of nicotine receptors in different brain regions. The rating scales will determine the person's smoking history and other related variables. The MRI scan will help localize regions on the PET scan.
Biospecimen Retention: None Retained
|Study Start Date:||January 2013|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||October 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||October 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Smokers will be recruited who have either significant caffeine use, significant marijuana use, or no such use. Smokers will also be determined to have either primarily menthol cigarette or primarily non-menthol cigarette use.
Despite improvements in tobacco control, the prevalence of Tobacco Dependence (TD) remains high at 27% among Veterans and 21% among the general U.S. population (~46 million U.S. adults). Both co-morbid substance use and menthol cigarette preference are important issues contributing to greater severity of TD. Among smokers, a lifetime history of substance use/dependence is common and approximately 33% of all smokers use primarily menthol cigarettes, meaning that roughly 9% of Veterans smoke menthols. In addition to menthol cigarette usage being prevalent among Veterans, this problem is likely to worsen over time, because recent military deployments increase the chances of smoking initiation and marketing of menthol cigarettes is aimed at roughly the age group that comprises the active military.
For substance use/dependence, marijuana (MJ) users are five times more likely than non-MJ users to smoke tobacco cigarettes, and regular caffeine users are twice as likely as non-caffeine users to smoke cigarettes. Cigarette smoking contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality among patients with drug (and alcohol) dependencies, making it vital to understand better the complex relationship between drug/alcohol dependence and brain nicotine receptor densities in cigarette smokers.
Based on prior literature and pilot data collected during the previous Merit Review period, the primary hypotheses for the proposed research are that: 1) Participants who are heavy MJ users will have higher 4 2* nAChR densities in the thalami (and other brain regions) than participants who are not heavy MJ users, 2) Participants who are daily heavy caffeine users will have lower 4 2* nAChR densities in the thalami (and other regions) than participants who are not heavy daily caffeine users, 3) Densities of 4 2* nAChRs in the thalami (and other brain regions of interest) will be higher in menthol than non-menthol cigarette smokers, and 4) lesser severity of 4 2* nAChR up-regulation at baseline (along with clinical factors such as lesser severity of nicotine dependence) will be associated with better treatment outcomes in a standard smoking cessation program, including an improved likelihood of quitting and/or decreasing smoking.
To test these hypotheses, cigarette smokers will be recruited through flyers posted at the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System in areas where smokers are likely to be present. Participants will undergo the following sequence of procedures: (1) telephone/in-person screening, (2) a bolus-plus-continuous-infusion 2-FA positron emission tomography (PET) scanning session, (3) a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan within one week of the initial PET session, and (4) referral to a standard 12-week smoking cessation program. Rating scales for the determination of smoking-related symptoms will be collected before and during the PET scanning procedure. Smoking status and measures of nicotine exposure and metabolism will be collected during the study using participant reports, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) levels, urine cotinine levels, and plasma nicotine, cotinine, and 3'-hydroxycotinine levels.
|Contact: Trinh Luu, MA||(310) 478-3711 ext email@example.com|
|United States, California|
|VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, West LA||Recruiting|
|West Los Angeles, California, United States, 90073|
|Contact: Trinh Luu, MA 310-478-3711 ext 44342 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator: Arthur L. Brody, MD|
|Principal Investigator:||Arthur L. Brody, MD||VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, West LA|