Decitabine Followed by Idarubicin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01607645
First received: May 25, 2012
Last updated: October 9, 2013
Last verified: October 2013
  Purpose

The goals of this study are to learn about the effectiveness, the side-effects, if waiting to give the idarubicin and cytarabine may change the side effects or effectiveness, and to identify factors to predict for responses to this therapy. The trial will examine combination of three chemotherapy drugs. These drugs are decitabine, idarubicin, and cytarabine.


Condition Intervention Phase
Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7)
Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a)
Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b)
Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2)
Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1)
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q)
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22)
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22)
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22)
Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4)
Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a)
Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b)
Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts
Drug: decitabine
Drug: idarubicin
Drug: cytarabine
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase II Trial Examining Epigenetic Priming With Decitabine Followed by Idarubicin and Cytarabine for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory AML.

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Morphologic CR rates defined as absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at least 1,000/μL, platelet count at least 100,000/μL, less than 5% BM blasts, no Auer rods, no morphologic dysplasia, and no evidence of extramedullary disease [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The trial will follow an optimal two-stage Simon design. This design has an overall type 1 error rate (alpha) of 10%, and a power of 82% for a true CR rate of 30%. The probability of stopping after the first stage is 70%, if the true CR rate is 10%, and 11%, if the true CR rate is 30%.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Resistant disease defined as patient survives at least 14 days after completion of the last dose of induction or re-induction but has persistent leukemia in peripheral blood (PB) or BM [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 90 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Cytogenetic response defined as no detectable cytogenetic abnormality in a subsequent BM specimen after induction or re-induction [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • CRMRD- defined as morphologic CR without evidence of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry, cytogenetics, or other known molecular biomarkers [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • CRi defined as meeting all criteria for a morphologic CR but ANC remains less than 1,000/μL and/or platelet count less than 100,000/μL [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • CRMRD+ defined as a morphologic CR but with minimal residual disease by flow cytometry, cytogenetics, or other known molecular biomarkers [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • CRiMRD+ defined as meeting all criteria for a CRi but with evidence of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry, cytogenetics, or other known molecular biomarkers [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • TRM with each course of decitabine-priming, idarubicin, and cytarabine [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to Day 30 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Frequency and severity of grade 3, 4, and 5 toxicities with each course of decitabine-priming, idarubicin, and cytarabine according to NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version (CTCAE) 4.0 [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 3 months after completion study treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Severe prolonged aplasia [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 45 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Duration of severe neutropenia defined as an ANC less than 500 [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Duration of moderate neutropenia defined as an ANC less than 1000 [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Duration of thrombocytopenia defined as platelet count less than 100,000 [ Time Frame: Assessed for up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 7
Study Start Date: July 2012
Study Completion Date: September 2013
Primary Completion Date: July 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Treatment (decitabine, idarubicin, cytarabine)
Patients receive decitabine IV over 1 hour on days -4 to 0, cytarabine IV continuously over 24 hours on days 1-7, and idarubicin IV over 10-15 minutes on days 1-3.
Drug: decitabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • 5-aza-dCyd
  • 5AZA
  • DAC
Drug: idarubicin
Given IV
Other Names:
  • 4-demethoxydaunorubicin
  • 4-DMDR
  • DMDR
  • IDA
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • ARA-C
  • arabinofuranosylcytosine
  • arabinosylcytosine
  • Cytosar-U
  • cytosine arabinoside
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Correlative studies
Experimental: Arm II (decitabine, idarubicin, cytarabine)
Patients receive decitabine IV over 1 hour on days -9 to -5 and cytarabine and idarubicin as in Arm I.
Drug: decitabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • 5-aza-dCyd
  • 5AZA
  • DAC
Drug: idarubicin
Given IV
Other Names:
  • 4-demethoxydaunorubicin
  • 4-DMDR
  • DMDR
  • IDA
Drug: cytarabine
Given IV
Other Names:
  • ARA-C
  • arabinofuranosylcytosine
  • arabinosylcytosine
  • Cytosar-U
  • cytosine arabinoside
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Correlative studies

Detailed Description:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine the morphologic complete remission (CR) rates using a decitabine (DAC)-priming followed by idarubicin (IDA) and cytarabine (ARAC) in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine CR without minimal residual disease (CRMRD-), CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi), CR with minimal residual disease (CRMRD+), and CR with incomplete blood count recovery and with minimal residual disease (CRiMRD+) rates.

II. To estimate the frequency and severity of regimen-related toxicities.

III. To identify biomarkers (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] methylation and expression changes including interferon regulatory factor [IRF]8) associated with clinical responses.

OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

ARM I: Patients receive decitabine intravenously (IV) over 1 hour on days -4 to 0, cytarabine IV continuously over 24 hours on days 1-7, and idarubicin IV over 10-15 minutes on days 1-3.

ARM II: Patients receive decitabine IV over 1 hour on days -9 to -5 and cytarabine and idarubicin as in Arm I.

In both arms, treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 3 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up periodically for 5 years.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Written informed consent
  • All patients except those with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who have morphological diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-II or AML by World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and have either refractory or early relapsed disease; NOTE:

    • Diagnosis of refractory or relapsed disease must be based on evaluation of a bone marrow (BM) aspirate or peripheral blood (PB) flow cytometry; other standard MDS and AML prognostic studies such as cytogenetics, flow, and molecular testing are highly recommended prior to initiating DAC
    • A previous BM evaluation or PB flow cytometry from an outside facility are acceptable if the results have been deemed to be adequate for confirming the diagnosis and staging by University of Washington (UW)/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SSCA)/Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) review
    • A BM biopsy is not routinely required but should be obtained if the previous evaluation is not deemed to be adequate for confirming diagnosis and staging by UW/SCCA/FHCRC review
  • Must have received at least one previous cycle of treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or AML and be either refractory as defined as not responded to this therapy or in early relapse as defined as developing recurrence of the disease within 12 months of obtaining a CR
  • May have previously received demethylating agents (e.g., DAC, 5-azacytidine [5AZA]) or histone deacetylases (e.g., suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) for their MDS or AML if these demethylating agents were not used in combination with systemic anthracycline and ARAC chemotherapy
  • May have received hematopoietic growth factors, thalidomide/lenalidomide, signal transduction inhibitors, or low dose cytarabine (=< 20 mg/m2/day)
  • May not have received any therapy for their MDS or AML other than hydroxyurea or leukapheresis for at least 14 days prior to start of the first dose of DAC; all non-hematologic toxicities must have resolved to < grade 2
  • Must have a "simplified" treatment-related mortality (TRM) score =< 9.2
  • Females of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test prior to initiation of the protocol therapy; females are considered not of child bearing potential if they are surgically sterile (they have undergone a hysterectomy, bilateral tubal ligation, or bilateral oophorectomy) or they are postmenopausal
  • Females of childbearing potential and males must be willing to use an effective method of contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) from the time consent is signed until 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation
  • Patients with an active or history of other malignancies are eligible, if their projected overall survival for that malignancy is at least 6 months
  • Prior hormonal therapy such as aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen receptor modulators, estrogen receptor down-regulators, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists and antagonists, and anti-androgens, must be completed at least 30 days prior to initiation of protocol therapy and must remain off hormonal therapy until the patient has finished chemotherapy for their MDS-RAEBII or AML
  • Direct bilirubin =< 2.5 mg/dL (assessed within 14 days prior to registration) unless elevation is thought to be due to hepatic infiltration by AML, Gilbert's syndrome, or hemolysis
  • No known hypersensitivity to decitabine (DAC), aracytidine triphosphate (ARAC), or idarubicin hydrochloride (IDA)
  • No clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement with leukemia, unless a lumbar puncture confirms the absence of leukemic blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • No prior positive test for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • No uncontrolled systemic infection

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Previous therapy with demethylating agents (e.g., DAC, 5AZA, etc.) or histone deacetylases (e.g., suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, etc.) that was combined with daunorubicin (DNR) or IDA and ARAC
  • Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)
  • Known hypersensitivity to DAC, ARAC, or IDA
  • Clinical evidence of CNS involvement with leukemia, unless a lumbar puncture confirms the absence of leukemic blasts in the CSF
  • Prior positive test for HIV
  • Uncontrolled systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or other infection (defined as exhibiting ongoing signs/symptoms related to the infection and without improvement, despite appropriate antibiotics or other treatment)
  • A "simplified" TRM score > 9.2
  • Bilirubin > 2.5 mg/dl (assessed within 14 days prior to registration), unless elevation is thought to be due to hepatic infiltration by AML, Gilbert's syndrome, or hemolysis
  • Patients who have a projected overall survival < 6 months due to malignancies other than MDS or AML
  • Documented symptomatic congestive heart failure or a documented left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% assessed by multigated acquisition (MUGA), echocardiography, or heart catheterization within 21 days prior to start of decitabine
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01607645

Locations
United States, Washington
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington Cancer Consortium
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98109
Sponsors and Collaborators
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Derek Stirewalt Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington Cancer Consortium
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01607645     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2588.00, NCI-2012-00769, P30CA015704
Study First Received: May 25, 2012
Last Updated: October 9, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Congenital Abnormalities
Anemia
Anemia, Refractory
Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts
Leukemia
Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute
Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute
Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Leukemia, Myeloid
Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Preleukemia
Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic
Hematologic Diseases
Bone Marrow Diseases
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Myeloproliferative Disorders
Precancerous Conditions
Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases
Cytarabine
Decitabine
Idarubicin
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Antineoplastic Agents
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 18, 2014