Efficiency of Physical Activity on the Physical Condition of Elderly Women
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects and the efficiency of an adapted physical activity program as regards the physical condition of older Brazilian women.
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Effects of an Adapted Physical Activity Program on the Physical Condition of Elderly Women: an Analysis of Efficiency|
- Efficiency Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a test of operational investigation It was used to determine the relative efficiency of the older women, considered Decision Making Units (DMU). This analysis supports the hypothesis that the outputs do not need to be proportional to the inputs.
- Grip strength [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Grip strength was measured using a Sammons Preston Swedley-Type hand dynamometer (Jamar® Bolingbrook IL, 60440). The test was performed three times on the dominant upper limb at 10-second intervals between each run. The grip strength assigned to each participant was the highest of the three values measured. Subjects were guided to hold the grip meter during exhalation without performing the Valsalva maneuver; they were encouraged verbally throughout the test.
- Sit-and-Reach Test [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]The Sit-and-Reach Test was employed to evaluate the participants' flexibility of the posterior trunk and lower limbs. The movement was performed three times. The flexibility assigned to subjects was the highest value measured.
- Static balance [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Static balance was verified by the One-Leg Stance Test with eyes open31. The subjects gazed at a fixed point two meters away for no more than 30 seconds, with one leg bent at the knee. The test was done three times with open and closed eyes and for both legs, taking into account for each condition (open or closed eyes) the mean value of the measures.
- Dynamic balance [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Dynamic balance was evaluated by the Maximum Gait Velocity (MGV). The subjects were instructed to walk along a 33.3cm-wide and 3.33m-long band painted on the floor in the shortest possible time. The test was performed three times. The dynamic balance value assigned to each subject was the mean time walking along the band.
- VO2max [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]The Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test was used to determine the subjects' physical condition estimated by the VO2max
|Study Start Date:||April 2010|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||April 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Physical activity program Group
The physical activity program consists of 123 sessions over 52 weeks. The initial assessment is followed by 12 weeks of physical activity. After this ten-week period, a second assessment is performed, followed by 3 weeks of rest. This is followed by a further 17 weeks of activities, 4 weeks of activities followed by 4 weeks of rest. Finally, there were 12 more weeks of activities.
Other: Physical activity program
The activities are done in groups of no more than 25 individuals; these activities are standardized and agreed upon by the research team, which hold monthly meetings to conduct the study. Each physical activity session consists of 8-10 minutes of exercises aimed at stretching the major muscle groups (pectoral muscles, latissimus dorsi, cervical paravertebral, and posterior and anterior thigh muscles); 9 minutes of aerobic endurance activity (march/fast walk); 7-10 minutes of adapted strength exercises, power, and endurance training; 14-16 minutes of coordination, agility, and flexibility exercises, and 5-7 minutes of respiratory and relaxation exercises.
Although physical activity programs for the elderly have proved to be able to curb harmful changes due to ageing, not all programs show the same effectiveness, even though they are generally regarded as being effective. The existence of a wide variety of programs calls for debate about their outcomes.
Specific research tools and designs can assist in identifying not only program effectiveness but also program efficiency and use in terms of a better physical performance of subjects on carrying out exercises with less effort, influenced by multiple factors, one of them being adherence to the program. These analyses allow the influence of efficiency and the factors that determine it or are associated with it to be tested, and can provide classifications and subgroups to which interventions should be adapted if they are to offer the best service to them in the short and medium term.
|Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos|
|Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 13.565-905|
|Principal Investigator:||José R. Rebelatto, Ph.D.||Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos|