Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine at Preventing Anal HPV Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01461096
First received: October 26, 2011
Last updated: July 14, 2014
Last verified: July 2014
  Purpose

Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased risk of developing anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, which can be a risk factor for anal cancer. HIV-infected women are also at risk of anal cancer. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, at preventing anal HPV infection in HIV-infected MSM and HIV-infected women.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Biological: Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine
Biological: Placebo Vaccine for Male Participants Only
Biological: Placebo Vaccine for Female Participants Only
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Trial of the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine to Prevent Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to the first new persistent infection of HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 [ Time Frame: Measured through participant's last study visit, which will occur 3 to 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of participants with biopsy-proven high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) occurrences or reoccurrences after Week 52 [ Time Frame: Measured through participant's last study visit, which will occur 3 to 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Number of participants with anal cytological abnormality occurrences [ Time Frame: Measured through participant's last study visit, which will occur 3 to 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Number of participants with Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) that are possibly, probably, or definitely related to the vaccine, as determined by the local investigator [ Time Frame: Measured through participant's last study visit, which will occur 3 to 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Number of participants with biopsy-proven HGAIN recurrences after Week 52 among those with HGAIN at study entry [ Time Frame: Measured through participant's last study visit, which will occur 3 to 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Number of participants with biopsy-proven or provider-detected anal, perianal, or oral condyloma after Week 52 [ Time Frame: Measured through participant's last study visit, which will occur 3 to 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Time to first new persistent oral HPV infection of vaccine types. detected from oral rinse [ Time Frame: Measured through participant's last study visit, which will occur 3 to 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Estimated Enrollment: 564
Study Start Date: March 2012
Estimated Primary Completion Date: August 2016 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine
Participants will receive the quadrivalent HPV vaccine at baseline and Weeks 8 and 24.
Biological: Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine
Participants will receive one intramuscular (IM) injection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the upper arm or thigh at baseline and Weeks 8 and 24.
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Vaccine
Participants will receive the placebo vaccine at baseline and Weeks 8 and 24.
Biological: Placebo Vaccine for Male Participants Only
Participants will receive one IM injection of the placebo vaccine in the upper arm or thigh at baseline and Weeks 8 and 24.
Biological: Placebo Vaccine for Female Participants Only
Participants will receive one IM injection of the placebo vaccine in the upper arm or thigh at baseline and Weeks 8 and 24.

Detailed Description:

Anal HPV infection can be a risk factor for anal cancer, which is a common non-AIDS-defining cancer among HIV-infected MSM. Screening for anal cancer is not widely available and can be difficult to implement. People who receive the FDA-approved quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, may have a reduced risk of developing anal HPV infection, which may in turn reduce the risk of developing anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, at reducing the incidence of anal HPV infections in HIV-infected MSM and HIV-infected women.

This study will enroll HIV-infected MSM and HIV-infected women. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive the HPV vaccine or a placebo vaccine. At the screening study visit, participants will undergo a physical examination, blood collection, anal swab procedure, oral examination, questionnaires, a high-resolution anoscopy (HRA), and if female, a pregnancy test, vaginal swab, and gynecologic exam. At the entry study visit, participants will undergo most of the procedures performed at screening (with the exception of an HRA and a gynecologic exam if female) plus a saliva test. Participants will receive the HPV vaccine or placebo as an injection into their upper arm or thigh on Day 0 and Weeks 8 and 24. Study staff will call participants 2 to 3 days after each vaccination for follow-up monitoring. Additional study visits and procedures will occur at Week 28, Week 52, and every 26 weeks thereafter for at least 3 years and for a maximum of 4 years after the last participant is enrolled in the study. Female participants will also have a gynecologic exam at screening, Week 52, and every 52 weeks thereafter; a pregnancy test at screening, baseline, Week 8, Week 24, and as indicated; and self-collected vaginal swabs at screening, entry, Week 28, Week 52, and every 26 weeks thereafter. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) will be collected from some participants at entry, Week 28, and study exit.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   27 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV-1 infection, documented by any licensed rapid HIV test or HIV enzyme or chemiluminescence immunoassay (E/CIA) test kit at any time prior to study entry and confirmed by a licensed Western blot or a second antibody test by a method other than the initial rapid HIV and/or E/CIA, or by HIV-1 antigen, plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Laboratory values obtained within 45 days prior to entry by any U.S. laboratory that has a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA) certification or its equivalent, or at any network-approved non-U.S. laboratory that operates in accordance with Good Clinical Practices and participates in appropriate external quality assurance programs:

    1. Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) greater than 750 cells/mm^3
    2. Hemoglobin greater than or equal to 9.0 g/dL
    3. Platelet count greater than or equal to 75,000/mm^3
    4. Serum creatinine less than or equal to three times the upper limit of normal (ULN)
    5. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]) less than or equal to five times the ULN
    6. Total or conjugated (direct) bilirubin less than or equal to 2.5 times the ULN
  • For men, receptive anal sex (defined as receptive penile-anal sex or receptive oral-anal sex with another man) within 1 year prior to entry
  • Anal cytology result from specimen obtained within 45 days prior to entry
  • HRA performed within 45 days prior to entry by a certified HRA provider with no evidence of invasive or microinvasive anal cancer by anal biopsy or by visual inspection if no biopsy was obtained. Note: refer to protocol for more information about HRA certification process.
  • For women, gynecologic examination (including screening for cervical disease by exfoliative cytology with or without colposcopy) within 45 days prior to entry.
  • For women of reproductive potential, a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 45 days prior to study entry by any U.S. laboratory that has a CLIA certification or its equivalent, or at any network-approved non-U.S. laboratory that operates in accordance with Good Clinical Practices and participates in appropriate external quality assurance programs. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Confirmation of the availability of the anal swab, vaginal swab (women only) and Scope oral rinse specimens for HPV DNA PCR obtained at screening. The site must confirm that these samples have been entered into the Laboratory Data Management System (LDMS).
  • Ability and willingness of participant or legal representative to provide informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History or current biopsy diagnosis of invasive or microinvasive cancer, i.e.:

    • For all participants: anal or oropharyngeal cancer
    • For men: penile cancer
    • For women: cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cancer
    • More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Anal, cervical, or vaginal cytological results suspicious for invasive carcinoma at any point prior to entry
  • Topical or surgical treatment for intra- or perianal intraepithelial neoplasia or condyloma within 6 months prior to entry. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Prior receipt of one or more doses of an HPV vaccine
  • Receipt of anticoagulants other than aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) within 14 days prior to entry
  • Known allergy/sensitivity or any hypersensitivity to yeast or any of the components of the study product or its formulation. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence or other condition that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements
  • Serious illness requiring systemic treatment and/or hospitalization within 21 days prior to entry
  • Hemophilia or other bleeding diatheses
  • Use of any systemic antineoplastic or immunomodulatory treatment, systemic corticosteroids other than inhaled corticosteroids or prednisone less than or equal to 10 mg (or equivalent), investigational vaccines, interleukins, interferons, growth factors, or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) within 45 days prior to study entry. NOTE: Routine standard-of-care vaccines (including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcal, and tetanus vaccines) are not exclusionary.
  • Expected treatment of hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus with immunomodulatory agents in the 7 months after entry
  • Breastfeeding
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01461096

  Show 25 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Study Chair: Timothy J. Wilkin, MD, MPH Cornell Clinical Research Site
Study Chair: Ross D. Cranston, MD University of Pittsburgh
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01461096     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: A5298, 11798
Study First Received: October 26, 2011
Last Updated: July 14, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Papillomavirus Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
DNA Virus Infections
Tumor Virus Infections

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 28, 2014