Impact of Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine Plus Primaquine on Malaria Transmission in Lampung Province, Sumatra
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been known to be controversial for stopping malaria transmission. The addition of primaquine (PQ) - the only drug commercially available that kills mature transmission stage - to such treatments might be necessary to eliminate this stage. A study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) regimens with PQ on malaria transmission on a community wide level in Lempasing, Lampung, Sumatra.
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Evaluation of Impact Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine Plus Primaquine on Malaria Transmission in Lempasing Village, Lampung Province, Southern Sumatra|
- Presence of malaria (P. falciparum and P. vivax) parasites in blood spot [ Time Frame: 6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Finger prick blood samples are collected for malaria blood smear. Thick and thin blood smears were stained with 3% Giemsa solution for 40 minutes and were read under binocular microscope with 1,000X magnification.
|Study Start Date:||February 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Drug: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine with primaquine
P. falciparum : Treated with fixed doses of 40 mg dihydroartemisinin and 320 mg piperaquine based on weight for 3 days (D0, D1 and D2) with max dose of 1 x 3 tablets for patients weighing ≥ 41 kg; 1 x 2 tablets for patients weighing 31 - 40 kg, 1 x 1.5 tablets for patients weighing 18 - 30 kg, and 1 X 1 tablet for patients with body weight of 11 - 17 kg. A single dose PQ of 0.75 mg/kg BW was provided on Day-3 using 15 mg base PQ tablets. The maximal dose was 3 tablets for subjects weighing ≥ 60 kg. The dose range for subjects weighing 10 - 13 kg was 0.5 tablet; 14 - 18 kg was 0.75 tablet; 19 - 23 kg was 1 tablet, 24 -30 kg was 1.5 tablet; 31 - 40 kg was 2 tablets; 41- 49 kg was 2.25 tablet; 50 - 59 kg was 2.5 tablet and ≥ 60 kg was 3 tablets.
P. vivax: DHP (3 days) + primaquine (14 days)
A mass screening baseline survey enabled the description of malaria prevalence (P. falciparum and P. vivax). Malaria infected asymptomatic (from the mass screening) and symptomatic (malaria infected people attending the health center) people were enrolled in the study. Enrolled malaria infected subjects were treated with DHP and PQ according to the treatment regimen. The community was mass screened for malaria infections every 3 months and an incidence cohort screened every month for infections. The 3 aims were to look at malaria antibodies, haemoglobin levels and the incidence of malaria before and after the drug intervention.