Evaluation Of "Coaching Boys Into Men" (CBIM) Program

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Elizabeth Miller, University of Pittsburgh
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01367704
First received: June 1, 2011
Last updated: July 16, 2014
Last verified: July 2014
  Purpose

Despite the high prevalence of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) reported among adolescent females and substantial reports of perpetration by young males, effective prevention programs to prevent ARA are limited. Male athletes are an important target for prevention efforts given their higher rates of abuse perpetration compared to non-athlete peers as well as their social influence among their peers. This cluster-randomized school-based investigation examines the effectiveness of a program for the primary prevention of ARA. "Coaching Boys into Men" (CBIM) is a social norms theory-based program intended to alter norms that foster ARA perpetration, promote bystander intervention, and reduce ARA perpetration by engaging athletic coaches as positive role models to deliver violence prevention scripts and tools to high school age male athletes. Coaches receive a 60-minute training session to administer the intervention to their athletes via 11 lessons across a sport season. Trained high school coaches talk to their male athletes about 1) what constitutes disrespectful and harmful vs. respectful behaviors, 2) promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and 3) modeling bystander intervention when disrespectful behaviors toward women and girls are witnessed. The current investigation evaluates the intervention in 16 urban high schools randomized either to receive the CBIM program (i.e., intervention schools, n=8) or to a control condition (n=8). Baseline computer-based surveys are collected for all intervention and control site student athletes entering grades 9 through 12 at the start of each of three sports seasons across Year 1 (Time 1). Follow up surveys are collected for these same athletes at the end of their first sports season (Time 2). Participating athletes in grades 9 - 11 at baseline are re-surveyed 12 months after Time 1 to examine the longer term effects of the CBIM intervention (Time 3; N of athletes completing all 3 waves of data collection = 1500). Primary assessment of intervention effects are based on intent-to-treat estimates, utilizing generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering arising from school randomization. Hypothesized outcomes for male athletes include a) an increase in recognition of what constitutes abusive behaviors, b) more gender-equitable attitudes, c) an increase in intentions and reports of bystander intervention regarding ARA, and through these intermediate outcomes, d) a decrease in perpetration of ARA among adolescent male athletes.


Condition Intervention
Violence
Abuse
Behavioral: "Coaching Boys Into Men" program

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Adolescent Relationship Abuse Prevention Program Entitled "Coaching Boys Into Men"

Further study details as provided by University of Pittsburgh:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change From Baseline to 3 Months Using the Recognition of Abusive Behavior Scale [ Time Frame: 3 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Recognition of disrespectful and harmful behaviors against girls as abusive comparing baseline and follow up mean scores, using a 5-point Likert-like scale ranging from "not abusive" to "extremely abusive" (minimum = 1 and maximum = 5). This scale was developed by Silverman et al to assess perceptions of the degree of abusiveness of specified relationship behaviors and modeled as a mean of responses to 12 items.

  • Change From Baseline to 3 Months Using the Gender Equitable Attitudes Scale [ Time Frame: 3 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Assessment of gender-equitable attitudes comparing baseline mean score with follow up mean score, using a 5-point Likert-like scale ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" (minimum = 1 and maximum = 5). This scale includes questions modified from Barker's Gender-Equitable Norms Scale and modeled as a mean of responses to 11 items.

  • Change From Baseline to 3 Months Using the Intentions to Intervene Scale [ Time Frame: 3 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Proclivity to intervene when witnessing disrespectful and harmful behaviors among peers comparing baseline and follow up mean scores, using a 5-point Likert-like scale ranging from "very unlikely" to "very likely" (minimum = 1 and maximum = 5). This scale was investigator developed by Miller (PI) et al to assess participants report of how likely they would be to do something to stop the behavior and modeled as a mean of 8 items.


Enrollment: 2006
Study Start Date: October 2009
Study Completion Date: October 2011
Primary Completion Date: October 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Control School
Control schools (where the coaches do not receive the Coaching Boys into Men (CBIM) training until following academic year 'wait list control')
Behavioral: "Coaching Boys Into Men" program
Coaching Boys into Men (CBIM) program consists of a 60 minute training for high school coaches led by a violence prevention advocate to introduce coaches to the rationale for CBIM and the CBIM Coaches Kit. The Coaches use this CBIM toolkit to provide weekly discussions with their athletes (generally 10-15 minute mini-sessions) throughout their athletic season (11 weeks). Discussion topics include how to prevent disrespectful and harmful behaviors towards women and girls and how to promote healthy choices and relationships among youth.
Experimental: Intervention School
Intervention schools (where coaches receive the CBIM training at start of sports season)
Behavioral: "Coaching Boys Into Men" program
Coaching Boys into Men (CBIM) program consists of a 60 minute training for high school coaches led by a violence prevention advocate to introduce coaches to the rationale for CBIM and the CBIM Coaches Kit. The Coaches use this CBIM toolkit to provide weekly discussions with their athletes (generally 10-15 minute mini-sessions) throughout their athletic season (11 weeks). Discussion topics include how to prevent disrespectful and harmful behaviors towards women and girls and how to promote healthy choices and relationships among youth.

Detailed Description:

Additional process evaluation includes baseline and follow up surveys with coaches (from both intervention and control arms), individual interviews with coaches, as well as focus groups with students to collect coach and athlete perspectives on the relevance and local impact of the intervention program.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   14 Years to 18 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

School Eligibility:

Inclusion Criteria

-urban and suburban public high schools in Sacramento region with athletics program

Exclusion Criteria -private high schools, rural high schools

Coach Eligibility:

Inclusion Criteria

  • coaching an athletic team at one of the participating schools (intervention or control)
  • age 18 or older

Exclusion Criteria

-not coaching an athletic team at the participating schools

Athlete Eligibility:

Inclusion Criteria

  • ages 14-18 (grades 9 to 12)
  • student at one of the participating high schools
  • able to read English
  • participating in an athletic program led by a coach willing to participate in the research study

Exclusion Criteria

  • outside age range
  • not participating on sports team at the high school in which they are enrolled
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01367704

Locations
United States, Pennsylvania
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15213
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Pittsburgh
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Elizabeth Miller, MD, PhD Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
  More Information

No publications provided by University of Pittsburgh

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Elizabeth Miller, Chief, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of Pittsburgh
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01367704     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: PRO11060186, 1R01CE001561-01
Study First Received: June 1, 2011
Results First Received: May 29, 2014
Last Updated: July 16, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Center for Disease Control and Injury Prevention

Keywords provided by University of Pittsburgh:
gender-based violence
intimate partner violence
relationship abuse
sexual harassment
sexual violence

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 21, 2014