The Effects of Aerobic Water Exercise on Pregnancy
Objective: To assess the relationship between maternal cardiovascular capacity and aerobic water exercise during the gestational periods of hemodynamic overload. Study design: randomized clinical trial, with 41 healthy pregnant women assigned to one of two groups: Control and Water exercise. Maternal cardiovascular capacity (maximum oxygen consumption, cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and mean arterial pressure), physical performance (relative HR, treadmill speed and self-perceived exertion) and neonatal outcome (gestational age, weight, Apgar index and length of infant's hospitalization) were assessed. Means were evaluated by dependent and independent t-tests, and proportions by the chi-square method (p<0.05). Results: The control variables showed that the groups were homogeneous. Water exercise was associated with maintenance of VO2max, increase in stroke volume and cardiac output, and better performance on stress tests in the third trimester of gestation. No significant difference in neonatal variables was observed. Conclusion: Water exercise maintained cardiovascular capacity and performance under submaximal stress, and did not affect hemodynamic adaptation to gestation or neonatal outcome.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
|Official Title:||Randomized Clinical Study of the Effects of Aerobic Water Exercise on Maternal Cardiovascular Adaptation to Pregnancy|
- Cardiovascular capacity [ Time Frame: 39 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Performed during prenatal visits at 16-20, 28-33 and 34-39 weeks. Cardiovascular capacity was evaluated by using a treadmill submaximal stress test, according to the protocol of Balke-Ware & Bruce that requires five minutes on treadmill at fixed incline and constant individualized speed with AP and HR monitoring.
- Assessment of physical performance at stress testing; stress perception during testing [ Time Frame: 39 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Relative HR, treadmill speed and the Borg scale scores, obtained during testing, were used. A specific questionnaire was administered to all subjects in order to quantify stress perception during testing.
|Study Start Date:||January 2000|
|Study Completion Date:||April 2001|
|Primary Completion Date:||April 2001 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Experimental: Water exercise||
Other: Water aerobic exercise
The hydrotherapy program of Prevedel et al.14 was used. One-hour sessions, led by a physiotherapist under the supervision of an obstetrician, were held three times a week in an indoor swimming-pool heated at 28oC-32oC, and consisted of exercises of moderate intensity (60-70% of maximum heart rate). Subgroups of up to 10 subjects participated in each session. Sessions were offered at different times of the day (morning, afternoon, and evening).
The exercises included 5 phases: stretching, warm up, endurance training, strength training and relaxation with breathing exercises, in accordance with the recommendations of ACOG11.
|No Intervention: Control|
Show Detailed Description
|Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Botucatu Medical School - São Paulo State University/UNESP|
|Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil|
|Study Director:||Iracema MP Calderon, MD, Phd||Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Botucatu Medical School - São Paulo State University/UNESP. Botucatu, Brazil|