Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment Effect On Brain Function In Schizophrenia Measured By FMRI
The general aim is to compare the effects of typical and atypical antipsychotic medication on brain structure and function. A parallel group treatment trial will be utilized to compare the effects of the typical antipsychotic thiothixene versus the atypical antipsychotics risperidone (RIS) and olanzapine (OLZ) on brain structure and function in schizophrenia in an effort to determine the neuroanatomic basis for cognitive pathology in schizophrenia and its amelioration by atypical antipsychotic drugs.
Drug: Thiothixene baseline group
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Pharmacodynamics Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
|Official Title:||Risperidone Effects On Frontal And Temporal Cortical Function In Schizophrenia Patients Undergoing FMRI Cognitive Task Performance|
- Neurocognitive Assessment Procedure [ Time Frame: Baseline, after four weeks of Thiothixine, then follow-up after 8 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Composite score derived from the neurocognitive battery used in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia clinical trial and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS).
- fMRI activation Tasks [ Time Frame: Baseline, after four weeks of Thiothixine, then follow-up after 8 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]During MR imaging subjects performed one visual-auditory target detection task and one auditory oddball task. Subjects completed runs consisting of 160 trials with a total duration of approximately 4 min. During odd numbered runs, subjects performed a visual target detection task. During even numbered runs, subjects performed an auditory target detection task.
- Performance accuracy on Visual-auditory target detection task [ Time Frame: Baseline, after four weeks of Thiothixine, then follow-up after 8 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Per fMRI activation tasks. For the visual task, subjects were asked to pay attention to a screen where two types of stimuli were displayed: 1) Standards were squares of varying size and color that comprised ~95% of trials 2) Targets were circles of varying zize and colors that were presented irriegularly on ~5% of trials. The onsets of successive Targets were separated by a minimum of 15 seconds.
- Performance accuracy on Auditory oddball target detection task [ Time Frame: baseline, after four weeks of Thiothixine, then follow-up after 8 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Per fMRI activation tasks. Subjects were asked to pay attention to attend to auditory stimuli presented at a rate of one per 500 msecs for each run. Standards were 500 msec duration 440 Hz pure tones that were presented on ~95% of trials. Frequency-deviant Target tones were 500msec duration 800 Hz pure tones presented irregularly on ~5% of trials. The onsets of successive deviant tones were separated by a minimum of 15 seconds. During both tasks subjects were instructed to press a button whenever a Target was presented. No overt or covert response was required of Standards.
|Study Start Date:||January 2002|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2007|
|Primary Completion Date:||June 2005 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Risperidone Treatment Group
A two-week cross-titration phase followed randomization when patients started treatment with Risperidone in a double-blind manner and were tapered off Thiothixene. A six-week double blind active treatment period followed. Target dose was 6mg/day or highest dose tolerated.
6mg/day or highest dose tolerated for 8 weeks, following 4 weeks baseline treatment of Thiothixene
Other Name: risperidol, risperidal
Experimental: Olanzapine Treatment Group
A two-week cross-titration phase followed randomization when patients started treatment with Olanzapine in a double-blind manner and were tapered off Thiothixene. A six-week double blind active treatment period followed. Target dose 20mg/day (or the highest dose tolerated) for 8 weeks, following 4 weeks of baseline Thiothixene.
20mg/day for 8 weeks, following 4 weeks of baseline Thiothixene.
Other Name: Zydis, Zyprexa
No Intervention: Thiothixene
Subjects were first stabilized on open-label Thiothixene for four weeks, target dose 25 mg per day. Patients were then randomized to either Risperidone or Olanzapine treatment for 8 weeks.
Drug: Thiothixene baseline group
Subjects were first stabilized on open-label Thiothixene for four weeks, target dose 25 mg per day. Following this baseline period, patients were then randomized to either Risperidone or Olanzapine treatment for 8 weeks.
The general aim of this study was to determine the neuroanatomic basis for cognitive pathology in schizophrenia, as well as the effects of treatment with typical and atypical antipsychotics on clinical symptoms, neurocognition and brain function, as measured with function magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects underwent a randomized parallel group treatment trial that consisted of: a four-week Thiothixene treatment period, followed by randomization, two-weeks cross titration, and six-weeks of double blind treatment with Risperidone (RIS) or Olanzapine (OLZ). Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and fifteen healthy control subjects were initially enrolled. Diagnosis was established with the SCID. Subjects were assessed at two time points, at baseline after four weeks of Thiothixene treatment and at follow up, after eight weeks of double-blind atypical antipsychotic treatment. Controls were assessed once. Symptom severity was assessed using the PANSS. Cognitive functions associated with frontal and temporal cortical regions were probed with a neurocognitive testing battery using standardized attention, executive function and working memory tasks. Frontal and temporal cortical function was assessed with fMRI during the performance of visual and auditory oddball tasks. The visual task oddball task consisted of identifying an infrequent square presented within a series of frequent squares. The auditory oddball task consisted of identifying an infrequent pitch-deviant target tone embedded within a series of frequent standard tones. Thirteen patients and eleven controls completed fMRI at baseline and follow-up.
The results indicated that patients treated with the typical neuroleptic Thiothixene showed significantly smaller extents of activations in superior temporal, anterior cingulate and thalamic regions as compared to control subjects during the auditory oddball task. Although treatment with atypical neuroleptics considerably reduced group differences in cortical activation between controls and patients, the current sample size proved to be insufficient to yield statistically significant group by time interactions. The percent signal change data was in the same direction, but proved to be less sensitive to group differences than the extent of activation. The group differences were not pronounced during the visual oddball task, but were in the same direction.
|United States, North Carolina|
|Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599|
|Principal Investigator:||AYSENIL BELGER||University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill|