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Comparison of Glycemic Control in Obese Diabetics Using Three Different Pen Needles

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Becton, Dickinson and Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01231984
First received: October 29, 2010
Last updated: May 27, 2014
Last verified: May 2014
  Purpose

Anxiety about needles is a concern commonly expressed by diabetics when beginning insulin therapy. A shorter, thinner pen needle that delivers insulin with the safety and efficacy profile of longer pen needles may appeal to many diabetic patients as the shorter needle may be perceived as less intimidating and more comfortable. While pen needles of 4 to 8 mm in length are generally used for insulin injection in patients considered thin or normal weight, longer (12.7 mm) needles are still often prescribed for overweight or obese patients with diabetes. Since skin thickness is nearly constant across a range of body mass index (BMI), a clear rationale exists for the use of shorter needles in obese patients. (Gibney et al., CMRO 2010)

The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the BD Ultra-Fine™ Nano 4mm x 32 Gauge(G) pen needle manufactured by Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD) provides equivalent glucose control (as measured by hemoglobin A1c levels) as the BD Ultra-Fine™ 8mm x 31G and the BD Ultra-Fine™ 12.7mm x 29G pen needles in obese subjects with diabetes.


Condition Intervention
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Device: 4 mm x 32G Pen Needle
Device: 8mm x 31G Pen Needle
Device: 12.7mm x 29G Pen Needle

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Official Title: Comparison of Glycemic Control in Obese Subjects With Diabetes Using the BD Ultra-Fine™ Nano 4mm x 32G Pen Needle, and Either the BD Ultra-Fine™ Short 8mm x 31G Pen Needle or the BD Ultra Fine™ 12.7mm x 29G Pen Needle

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Becton, Dickinson and Company:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Glycemic Control as Measured by HbA1c (4 mm vs. 8 mm) [ Time Frame: Over each 12 week study period ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Subjects' glycemic control was assessed by comparing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels measured at the end of each 12 week Study Period (e.g., at Visit 5 or Visit 7) to the HbA1c measured at the start of that Study Period, i.e. the baseline (Visit 3) for Period 1 and the Period 1/2 crossover (Visit 5) for Period 2.

    Analysis included only subjects with HbA1C values at baseline (Visit 3) and at the end of Study Period 1 (Visit 5) and end of Period 2 (Visit 7).


  • Glycemic Control as Measured by HbA1c (4 mm vs. 12.7 mm) [ Time Frame: Over each 12 week study period ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Subjects' glycemic control was assessed by comparing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels measured at the end of each 12 week Study Period (e.g., at Visit 5 or Visit 7) to the HbA1c measured at the start of that Study Period, i.e. the baseline (Visit 3) for Period 1 and the Period 1/2 crossover (Visit 5) for Period 2.

    Analysis included only subjects with HbA1C values at baseline (Visit 3) and at the end of Study Period 1 (Visit 5) and end of Period 2 (Visit 7).



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Glycemic Control as Measured by HbA1c, in High Dose Insulin (at Least One Dose of ≥ 40 Units) Users [ Time Frame: Subjects were randomly assigned to use the BD Ultra-Fine™ 4mm pen needle for one - 12 week study period and either the BD Ultra-Fine™ 8mm pen needle or the BD Ultra-Fine™ 12.7mm pen needle for one - 12 week study period. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Glycemic control was assessed as by difference between the subjects' HbA1c (%) at baseline (randomization, Visit 3) and at the end of each 12 week study period,in the same manner as for the primary outcome measures. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference in HbA1c values between the 4mm PN and the longer PN will be estimated based on general linear models adjusting for baseline HbA1c.

  • Injection Pain Scores (4 mm vs. 8 mm) [ Time Frame: At the end of Study Period 2 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    At the end of second study period, subjects were asked to rate the level of pain experienced with study period 2 needle compared to the pen needle used in study period 1, using a 150 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The VAS is a measure of the pain perceived with the needle they are using at that point in the study relative to the needle they used in Period 1. The VAS is anchored at the center (0mm) with "as painful" and at each extreme with "much less painful (-75mm) and "much more painful (+75mm); therefore a pain rating < 0 indicates that the Period 2 needle was perceived as less painful than the Period 1 needle.

  • Injection Pain Scores (4 mm vs. 12 mm) [ Time Frame: At the end of Study Period 2 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    At the end of second study period, subjects were asked to rate the level of pain experienced with study period 2 needle compared to the pen needle used in study period 1, using a 150 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The VAS is a measure of the pain perceived with the needle they are using at that point in the study relative to the needle they used the previous period. The VAS is anchored at the center (0mm) with "as painful" and at each extreme with "much less painful (-75mm) and "much more painful (+75mm); therefore a negative pain rating means the period 2 needle was perceived as less painful than the period 1 needle.

  • Number of Serious, Unexplained Hypoglycemic Events, Reported as Number of Events by Needle. [ Time Frame: During Study Period 1 (12 weeks) and Study Period 2 (12 weeks) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Subjects were asked to record hypoglycemic events in his/her diary anytime his/her blood glucose (BG) was below 50mg/dL, s/he had signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia, or s/he required medical attention for treatment.

    Hypoglycemia was defined as serious when the subject required the assistance of another person to be treated, or when the hypoglycemic event met the per-protocol definition of a Serious Adverse Event. An unexplained episode was defined as one with no known cause (for example, the subject skipped a meal or exercised vigorously).


  • Number of Serious, Unexplained Hyperglycemic Events, Reported as Number of Events by Needle. [ Time Frame: During Study Period 1 (12 weeks) and Study Period 2 (12 weeks) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

    Subjects were asked to record hyperglycemic events in his/her diary anytime his/her blood glucose (BG) was above 400mg/dL, or s/he required medical attention for treatment for hyperglycemia.

    Hyperglycemia was defined as serious when the subject required the assistance of another person to be treated, or when the hyperglycemic event met the per-protocol definition of a Serious Adverse Event. An unexplained episode was defined as one with no known cause (for example, the subject missed an insulin dose). Subjects were asked to record these events in a diary.



Enrollment: 293
Study Start Date: October 2010
Study Completion Date: May 2012
Primary Completion Date: May 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: 4 mm vs. 8 mm
Subjects randomized to this study arm first used either the 4 mm x 32G Pen Needle or the 8mm x 31G Pen Needle for 12 weeks (Period 1), then switched to the alternate pen needle (PN) for another 12 weeks (Period 2). Order of PN use was randomly determined.
Device: 4 mm x 32G Pen Needle
During the 12 week study period, subjects use this pen needle with their own pen device for all daily insulin injections they usually administered themselves with a pen device. Subjects follow their usual insulin regimen and there is no upper limit on total daily insulin dosage or number of injections. Subjects are advised to inject straight in when using the 4mm PN, with no pinch up.
Other Name: BD Ultra-Fine™ Nano pen needle, Catalog number 320122
Device: 8mm x 31G Pen Needle
During the 12 week study period, subjects will use this pen needle with their own pen device for all daily insulin injections they usually administered themselves with a pen device. Subjects follow their usual insulin regimen and there is no upper limit on total daily insulin dosage or number of injections. Subjects are directed to use pinch-up when injecting in the abdomen or thigh with the 8mm PN, and no pinch-up at other injection sites.
Other Name: BD Ultra-Fine™ Short pen needle, Catalog number 320109
Experimental: 4 mm vs. 12.7 mm
Subjects randomized to this study arm first used either the 4 mm x 32G Pen Needle or the 12.7mm x 29G Pen Needle (PN) for 12 weeks (Period 1), then switched to the alternate PN for another 12 weeks (Period 2). Order of PN use was randomly determined.
Device: 4 mm x 32G Pen Needle
During the 12 week study period, subjects use this pen needle with their own pen device for all daily insulin injections they usually administered themselves with a pen device. Subjects follow their usual insulin regimen and there is no upper limit on total daily insulin dosage or number of injections. Subjects are advised to inject straight in when using the 4mm PN, with no pinch up.
Other Name: BD Ultra-Fine™ Nano pen needle, Catalog number 320122
Device: 12.7mm x 29G Pen Needle
During the 12 week study period, subjects will use this pen needle with their own pen device for all daily insulin injections they usually administered themselves with a pen device. Subjects follow their usual insulin regimen and there is no upper limit on total daily insulin dosage or number of injections. When using the 12.7mm PN, subjects are instructed to insert either at an angle of 45 degrees, or to pinch up and hold the pen device at a 90 degree angle (straight in).
Other Name: BD Ultra-Fine™ Original pen needle, BD Catalog Number 328203

Detailed Description:

Each subject's participation is expected to last a total of 7 months and includes a screening visit, a three-week wash-in period (one week with each of the three different size pen needles) followed by two consecutive 12 week study periods. The purpose of the three week wash-in period is to minimize the number of dropouts during the following study periods by ensuring that subjects have experience using each of the three study needles and find them generally acceptable for use during the study.

Only subjects who complete the wash-in period and confirm their agreement to continue participating will be randomized into one of the two study arms. Subjects will be randomly assigned to use the BD Ultra-Fine™ 4mm pen needle and either the BD Ultra-Fine™ 8mm pen needle or the BD Ultra-Fine™ 12.7mm pen needle. The randomization will also specify which of the two study pen needles to be used first. Half of the study subjects will use the BD Ultra-Fine™ 4mm and BD Ultra-Fine™ 8mm pen needles (4mm/8mm arm) and the other half will use the BD Ultra-Fine™ 4mm and the BD Ultra-Fine™ 12.7mm pen needles (4mm/12.7mm arm). At the end of the first 12 week study period subjects will switch to the other assigned pen needle for the second and final study period.

Glycemic control (based on HbA1c concentrations) will be assessed at baseline and at the end of each 12 week study period.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Insulin requiring diabetics (type 1 or type 2)
  • Using a pen device for self-injection of all diabetes-related medications for at least two months prior to screening.
  • 18 to 80 years of age, inclusive.
  • Body Mass Index of at least 30 kg/m².
  • Hemoglobin A1c from 5.5 to 9.5 percent (%), inclusive.
  • Self-monitor blood glucose at least twice per day with a memory blood glucose meter, and willing to do so at least twice per day for the duration of the study
  • On a stable diabetes treatment regimen (for example, no change to non-insulin therapies)for at least 2 months prior to screening
  • Able to read, write and follow instructions in English or Spanish.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Administer insulin with a pump.
  • Currently use a syringe to inject insulin or any other diabetes-related medication.
  • Pregnancy.
  • History of intravenous drug abuse.
  • Current status or history of a medical condition that would contraindicate treatment with the study product or other conditions which, in the opinion of the Investigator, would place the subject at risk or have the potential to confound interpretation of the study results (i.e. recent history of ketoacidosis, hypoglycemic unawareness, etc.)
  • Participated in any one of the following clinical studies:

    • BDDC-08-011, 'Comparison of Glycemic Control among Diabetics using the 4mm x 32G BD Pen Needle versus the 8mm x 31G BD Pen Needle and the 5mm x 31G BD Pen Needle'.
    • DBC-10-SQUIR04, 'Evaluation of Glycemic Control and User Acceptability of the BD Ultrafine Nano 4mm x 32G Pen Needle for Injection of Long-Acting or Basal Insulin Doses Above 40 Units'
    • DBC-10-EMRLD01, 'Design Validation of BD 5-bevel Pen Needles (4,5 and 8mm) in Subjects with Diabetes'
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01231984

Locations
United States, California
AMCR Institute, Inc.
Escondido, California, United States, 92026
United States, Georgia
Atlanta Diabetes Associates
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30309
United States, Illinois
Springfield Diabetes and Endocrine Center
Springfield, Illinois, United States, 62704
United States, Minnesota
International Diabetes Center (IDC)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55416
United States, Nebraska
Diabetes and Endocrine Associates
Omaha, Nebraska, United States, 68131
United States, New Jersey
The Molly Diabetes Center for Adults and Children at Hackensack University Medical Center
Hackensack, New Jersey, United States, 07601
United States, North Carolina
Mountain Diabetes and Endocrine Center
Asheville, North Carolina, United States, 28803
United States, Tennessee
University Diabetes and Endocrine Consultants
Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States, 37403
United States, Texas
Clinical Trials of Texas, Inc
San Antonio, Texas, United States, 78229
United States, Virginia
Corporate Lane Internal Medicine and Research Center
Virgina Beach, Virginia, United States, 23462
Sponsors and Collaborators
Becton, Dickinson and Company
Investigators
Study Director: Laurence Hirsch, MD BD Medical - Diabetes Care
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Becton, Dickinson and Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01231984     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: DBC-10-SQUIR05
Study First Received: October 29, 2010
Results First Received: October 24, 2013
Last Updated: May 27, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by Becton, Dickinson and Company:
diabetes
obesity
hypoglycemia
hyperglycemia
pen needle

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Autoimmune Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Metabolic Diseases

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on November 20, 2014