Exposure Therapy for Active Duty Soldiers With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (VRPE)

This study is enrolling participants by invitation only.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
University of Southern California
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Center for Telehealth and Technology
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01193725
First received: August 30, 2010
Last updated: September 5, 2013
Last verified: September 2013
  Purpose

This study is evaluating the efficacy of virtual realty exposure therapy (VRET)by comparing it to prolonged exposure therapy (PE) and a waitlist (WL) group for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty (AD) Soldiers with combat-related trauma. The investigators will test the general hypotheses that 10 sessions of VRET or PE will successfully treat PTSD, therapeutically affect levels of physiological arousal, and significantly reduce perceptions of stigma toward seeking behavioral health services.


Condition Intervention
Stress Disorders, Post Traumatic
Behavioral: Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)
Behavioral: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)
Behavioral: Waitlist

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Comparing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Prolonged Exposure in the Treatment of Soldiers With PTSD

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Center for Telehealth and Technology:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) [ Time Frame: Screening Visit ( Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The CAPS is a structured interview that assesses all DSM-IV PTSD criteria in terms of frequency and intensity. Scores are computed for Intrusion, Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom clusters, as well as a Total score.

  • Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The CAPS is a structured interview that assesses all DSM-IV PTSD criteria in terms of frequency and intensity. Scores are computed for Intrusion, Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom clusters, as well as a Total score.

  • Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The CAPS is a structured interview that assesses all DSM-IV PTSD criteria in terms of frequency and intensity. Scores are computed for Intrusion, Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom clusters, as well as a Total score.

  • Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) [ Time Frame: 12 Week follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The CAPS is a structured interview that assesses all DSM-IV PTSD criteria in terms of frequency and intensity. Scores are computed for Intrusion, Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom clusters, as well as a Total score.

  • Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) [ Time Frame: 26 Week follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The CAPS is a structured interview that assesses all DSM-IV PTSD criteria in terms of frequency and intensity. Scores are computed for Intrusion, Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom clusters, as well as a Total score.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) [ Time Frame: Screening Visit (Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PCL-C is a self report measure that evaluates att 17 PTSD criteria using a 5 point Likert scale.

  • Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PC-PTSD is a four-item measure designed to screen for PTSD.

  • Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    This self report measure of depression contains 21 items that are rated on a 4 point scale.

  • Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The IASMHS is a 24 item assessment of help-seeking attitudes. It includes the following three factors based on components of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior: Psychological Openness, Help-seeking Propensity and Indifference to Stigma.

  • Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS) [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Stigma will be measured using a 5 question assessment scale.

  • Suicide Risk Assessment [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The BAI is a self report measure consisting of 21 items designed to discriminate anxiety from depression.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 1 (week 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 1(week 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PCL-C is a self report measure that evaluates att 17 PTSD criteria using a 5 point Likert scale.

  • PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PCL-C is a self report measure that evaluates att 17 PTSD criteria using a 5 point Likert scale.

  • PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PCL-C is a self report measure that evaluates att 17 PTSD criteria using a 5 point Likert scale.

  • PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PCL-C is a self report measure that evaluates att 17 PTSD criteria using a 5 point Likert scale.

  • Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PC-PTSD is a four-item measure designed to screen for PTSD.

  • Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PC-PTSD is a four-item measure designed to screen for PTSD.

  • Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PC-PTSD is a four-item measure designed to screen for PTSD.

  • Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The PC-PTSD is a four-item measure designed to screen for PTSD.

  • Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    This self report measure of depression contains 21 items that are rated on a 4 point scale.

  • Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    This self report measure of depression contains 21 items that are rated on a 4 point scale.

  • Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    This self report measure of depression contains 21 items that are rated on a 4 point scale.

  • Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    This self report measure of depression contains 21 items that are rated on a 4 point scale.

  • Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The IASMHS is a 24 item assessment of help-seeking attitudes. It includes the following three factors based on components of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior: Psychological Openness, Help-seeking Propensity and Indifference to Stigma.

  • Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The IASMHS is a 24 item assessment of help-seeking attitudes. It includes the following three factors based on components of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior: Psychological Openness, Help-seeking Propensity and Indifference to Stigma.

  • Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The IASMHS is a 24 item assessment of help-seeking attitudes. It includes the following three factors based on components of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior: Psychological Openness, Help-seeking Propensity and Indifference to Stigma.

  • Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The IASMHS is a 24 item assessment of help-seeking attitudes. It includes the following three factors based on components of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior: Psychological Openness, Help-seeking Propensity and Indifference to Stigma.

  • Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS) [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Stigma will be measured using a 5 question assessment scale.

  • Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS) [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Stigma will be measured using a 5 question assessment scale.

  • Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS) [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Stigma will be measured using a 5 question assessment scale.

  • Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS) [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Stigma will be measured using a 5 question assessment scale.

  • Suicide Risk Assessment [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • Suicide Risk Assessment [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • Suicide Risk Assessment [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • Suicide Risk Assessment [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The BAI is a self report measure consisting of 21 items designed to discriminate anxiety from depression.

  • Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The BAI is a self report measure consisting of 21 items designed to discriminate anxiety from depression.

  • Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The BAI is a self report measure consisting of 21 items designed to discriminate anxiety from depression.

  • Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The BAI is a self report measure consisting of 21 items designed to discriminate anxiety from depression.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 1(week 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 2(week 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 3 (Week 2) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 4(Week 2) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 5 (Week 2.5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 6 (Week 3) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 7 (Week 4) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 8 (Week 4) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 9 (Week 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: Treatment session 10 (Week 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: 12 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • BASIS-24 [ Time Frame: 26 Week Follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To assess overall psychological pain and gives an indicator of overall wellness. Due to the nature of the questions, this is deemed to be of safety nature.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 2(week 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 3(Week 2) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 4(Week 2) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 5 (Week 2.5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 6 (Week 3) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 7 (Week 4) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 8 (Week 4) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 9 (Week 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs) [ Time Frame: Treatment session 10 (Week 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Ranging from 1 to 100, Subjective Units of Distress are gathered every 5 mintues during imaginal exposure to determine levels of distress and engagement in the situation.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 2(week 1) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 3(Week 2) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 4(Week 2) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 5(Week 2.5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 6 (Week 3) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 7 (Week 4) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 8 (Week 4) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 9 (Week 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.

  • Side Effects Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Treatment session 10 (Week 5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The Side Effects Questionnaire is based on a revised version of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) that will be used to measure general discomfort in both the VRET and PE conditions of the study.


Estimated Enrollment: 162
Study Start Date: March 2009
Estimated Study Completion Date: May 2014
Estimated Primary Completion Date: November 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)
The PE protocol is based on manualized procedures, which are derived from the theory that effective treatment for PTSD requires that the underlying pathological fear structure be activated and paired with new information that is incompatible with the fear structure. PE involves imaginal exposure and in vivo exposure as the two primary strategies to elicit repeated confrontation of feared but objectively safe thoughts, feelings, situations and events.
Behavioral: Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)
Prolonged exposure therapy will consist of 10 treatment sessions lasting 90 - 120 minutes each, with additional between-session homework assignments.
Other Name: PE
Experimental: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)
The VRET protocol follows the same procedures as the PE protocol with the primary exception being that all instances of imaginal exposure will be augmented by immersion into Virtual Iraq environments, thus creating a situation known as immersive exposure.
Behavioral: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy will consist of 10 treatment sessions lasting 90 -120 minutes with additional between-session homework assignments.
Other Names:
  • VRE
  • VRET
Placebo Comparator: Waitlist
The waitlist (WL) participants will be asked to refrain from psychotherapy during the 5 weeks of study participation.
Behavioral: Waitlist
This group will refrain from psychotherapy until after the completion of the 5 weeks of study participation
Other Names:
  • WL
  • Waitlist Control Group

Detailed Description:

The rationale for this study is based on growing evidence demonstrating that VRET is an efficacious treatment for PTSD and holds the potential to improve access to care for Soldiers who would otherwise avoid treatment. Although PE is considered one of the most effective cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) for treatments for PTSD, there are reasons why it may not be the most viable option for many Soldiers. First, Prolonged exposure requires a level of emotional engagement during exposure to the trauma that many patients are unable to obtain. Second, stigma and concerns about how Soldiers will be perceived by peers and leadership has a dramatic impact on whether a Soldier will seek care. VRET may address these concerns and may also improve treatment outcomes and access to care by augmenting the patient's re-living of the trauma with a sensory-rich environment and moderating stigma perceptions by offering non-traditional treatment that is a preferable option for many Soldiers who are reluctant to seek out traditional talk therapies. Despite its promise as a viable treatment option, few studies have examined VRET for combat-related PTSD and there are no published studies that have compared VRET to PE in the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Positive results may provide new treatment options for all Soldiers, but should prove to be an especially attractive option for Soldiers who either do not respond to, or are reluctant to engage in other established therapies such as PE.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • PTSD diagnosis as assessed by CAPS
  • history of deployment in support of OIF/OEF
  • non sexually based deployment related trauma
  • three or more months since index trauma
  • stable on psychotropic medications for 30 days

Exclusion Criteria:

  • index trauma in the last three months
  • history of schizophrenia, other psychotic or bipolar disorder
  • history of organic brain disorder
  • suicidal risk or intent or self-mutilating behavior requiring hospitalization in the last 6 months
  • ongoing threatening situation
  • current drug or alcohol dependence
  • history of seizures
  • prior history of PE for PTSD
  • other current psychotherapy
  • physical condition that interferes with proper use of Virtual Reality head mounted display
  • history of loss of consciousness since entering active duty service greater than 15 minutes
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01193725

Locations
United States, Washington
National Center for Telehealth and Technology
Tacoma, Washington, United States, 98431
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Center for Telehealth and Technology
University of Southern California
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gregory A Gahm, PhD DCoE - National Center for Telehealth and Technology
Principal Investigator: Greg Reger, PhD DCoE - National Center for Telehealth and Technology
  More Information

Publications:
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Rothbaum BO, Meadows EA, Resick P, Foy D. Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In: Foa EB, Keane TM, Friedman MJ, eds. Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: Guilford Press; 2000:320-325.
Foa EB, Steketee GS, Rothbaum BO. Behavioral/cognitive conceptualizations of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapy. 1989;20:155-176.
Foa EB, Hearst-Ikeda D. Emotional Dissociation in Response to Trauma: An Information-Processing Approach. In: Michelson LK, Ray WJ, eds. Handbook of Dissociation: Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press; 1996:207-222.
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Boudewyns P, Hyer L. Physiological response to combat memories and preliminary treatment outcome in Vietnam veteran PTSD patients treated with direct therapeutic exposure. Behavior Therapy. 1990;21 (1):63-87.
Britt TW. The stigma of psychological problems in a work environment: Evidence from the screening of Service Members returning from Bosnia. J of Applied Psych. 2000;30(8):1599-1618.
Foa EB, Riggs DS, Massie ED, Yarczower M. The impact of fear activation and anger on the efficacy of exposure treatment for PTSD. Behavior Therapy. 1995;26:487-499.
Rizzo AA, Buckwalter JG, van der Zaag C. Virtual Environment Applications for Neuropsychological Assessment and Rehabilitation. In: Stanney K, ed. Handbook of Virtual Environments. New York: L.A. Earlbaum; 2002:1027-1064.
Smith SG, Rothbaum BO, Hodges L. Treatment of fear of flying using virtual reality exposure therapy: A single case study. The Behavior Therapist. 1999;22(8):154-158,160.
Anderson P, Rothbaum BO, Hodges LF. Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of social anxiety: Two case reports. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2003;10:240-247.
Glantz K, Rizzo AA, Graap K. Virtual reality for psychotherapy: Current reality and future possibilities. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 2003;40(1/2):55-67.
Rizzo AA, Schultheis MT, Kerns K, Mateer C. Analysis of assets for virtual applications in neuropsychology. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 2004;14(1/2):207-239.
Rizzo AA, Kim G. A SWOT analysis of the field of virtual reality and therapy. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 2005;14(2):1-28.
Rothbaum BO, Ruef AM, Litz BT, Han H, Hodges L. Virtual reality exposure therapy of combat-related PTSD: A case study using psychophysiological indicators of outcome. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2003;17(2):163-177.
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Responsible Party: National Center for Telehealth and Technology
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01193725     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDO-09-8014, W81XWH-08-2-0015
Study First Received: August 30, 2010
Last Updated: September 5, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by National Center for Telehealth and Technology:
Combat Disorders
Exposure Therapy
Army Personnel

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
Stress Disorders, Traumatic
Anxiety Disorders
Mental Disorders

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 29, 2014