Food-related Differences in Human Metabolite Profiles
Many population studies include food questionnaires (recording the normal food intake or the food intake of the study day). This is necessary, because diet is an important lifestyle factor, although food questionnaires are time-consuming and expensive. Moreover, mis-reporting is a very common problem. We therefore seek for a tool to validate food protocol.
The hypothesis is to find biochemical marker for animal protein, fruit intake and grape consumption in urinary metabolic profiles after specific food consumption. Furthermore we want to specify biomarkers for different animal protein sources, fish and beef.
|Official Title:||Food-related Differences in Human Metabolite Profiles|
- To elucidate urinary biochemical markers for the consumption of fish, beef, fruit salad and grape.
1H NMR metabolic profiles will be acquired for all urine samples. These metabolic profiles contain a wealth of information about metabolites present in urine samples.
Multivariate mathematical model procedures, such as partial least squares discriminant analysis, will be employed to elucidate metabolic signatures associated to consumption of fish, beef, fruit salad and grape.
- To investigate the kinetics of elucidated biomarker excretion over time.Potential biomarkers (see primary outcome) will be quantified by integrating the NMR resonance and plotted over time.
Volunteers are asked to follow a diet plan over the whole course of the study. Every newly introduced food (in this study the dinner on days 2-5) will cause a change in biochemical marker excretion with urine. To monitor the kinetics of biomarker excretion it is necessary to collect urine several times a day; we will ask volunteers to collect the first morning urine, before lunch, before dinner and before going to bed. Urine sampling will start with the first morning urine on day 1 and end with first morning urine on day 7.
As test food, we propose a fruit salad (apples, grapes, orange and grapefruit) on day 2, fish on day 3, grapes on day 4, beef on day 5 and again fish for lunch on day 6.
From day 0 (run-in day) to day 6 the basic diet will always be bread and cheese for breakfast, coffee in the morning, a ham sandwich for lunch, and pasta and tomato sauce for dinner. As beverages only water will be allowed (although wine is permitted on day 4 if the subject wishes but this is not a protocol requirement). The test foods will be consumed in addition to that.
All urine samples will then be analysed using high resolution NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Mathematical data analyses as well as the visual examinations of the NMR spectra will also be carried out to identify new food biomarkers.