The Effect of Welchol on Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetics

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Daiichi Sankyo Inc.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Adrian Vella, Mayo Clinic
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00951899
First received: July 31, 2009
Last updated: October 17, 2013
Last verified: October 2013
  Purpose

The goal of this study was to determine the metabolic mechanism for a certain type medication's ability to lower blood sugar after a meal in Type 2 Diabetics, in order to develop a better understanding of it's potential role in the treatment of obesity.


Condition Intervention Phase
Type 2 Diabetes
Drug: Colesevelam
Other: Placebo
Behavioral: Diet
Drug: Metformin
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: The Effect of Colesevelam Hydrochloride on Disposition Index and Incretin Concentrations in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Using a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study Design

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Mayo Clinic:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Total Disposition Index [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Total Disposition Index (DI) is a calculated value which represents the ability of a person's pancreas to lower blood glucose. A higher number means the pancreas is better able to lower blood glucose and a lower number means the pancreas is less able to lower blood glucose.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Total Fasting Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Concentration [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    GLP-1 is thought to increase insulin secretion and was measured in the blood and reported in picomoles per liter.

  • Plasma Glucose Concentration [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 Weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Fasting glucose concentrations were measured at baseline and 2 hours post-meal using the glucose oxidase method.

  • Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    HbA1c is the percent of red blood cell hemoglobin with glucose attached to it and an indicator of average blood glucose over the previous two to three months.

  • Insulin Concentration [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 Weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Fasting insulin levels were measured in the plasma using a chemiluminescence assay and is reported in nanomoles over 6 hours.

  • Fasting Endogenous Glucose Production (EGP) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 Weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    EGP was measured using a triple-tracer mixed meal and calculated using the Steele's model, reported in micromoles per kilogram per minute.

  • Rate of Meal Glucose Appearance (Meal Ra) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 Weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Meal Ra was measured using a triple-tracer mixed meal and reported in micromols in 6 hours. Meal derived glucose is a function of both gastric emptying and splanchnic meal extraction. Meal Ra was calculated by multiplying rate of appearance of [1-^13C] glucose (obtained from the infusion rate of [6-^3H] glucose and the clamped plasma ratio of [6-^3H] glucose and [1-^13C] glucose) by the meal enrichment.

  • Rate of Meal Glucose Disappearance (Meal Rd) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 Weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Meal Rd is the rate at which glucose leaves the systemic circulation. It was measured using a triple-tracer mixed meal and reported in micromols over 6 hours. Meal Rd was calculated by subtracting the change in glucose mass from the overall rate of glucose appearance (i.e., meal Ra + EGP).

  • Lipid Values [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Lipids are fat-like substances in the blood.


Enrollment: 38
Study Start Date: August 2009
Study Completion Date: December 2012
Primary Completion Date: July 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Colesevelam
Treatment with colesevelam hydrochloride in addition to Metformin and Diet
Drug: Colesevelam
Colesevelam hydrochloride; three 625mg tablets taken orally twice per day before breakfast and before the evening meal over a 12-week treatment period.
Other Name: Welchol
Behavioral: Diet
Subjects were instructed to follow a weight maintenance diet (~55% carbohydrate, 30% fat and 15% protein) for the 12 week study period.
Drug: Metformin
Subjects continued to take their pre-study therapeutic doses of metformin (Metformin 500mg tablets taken by mouth twice daily for a total daily dose of 1000 to 2000 mg) through the 12 week study period.
Other Names:
  • Glucophage
  • Glucophage XR
  • Glumetza
  • Fortamet
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Treatment with placebo in addition to Metformin and Diet
Other: Placebo
Three placebo tablets matching the active drug colesevelam in appearance, taken orally twice per day before breakfast and before the evening meal over a 12-week treatment period.
Behavioral: Diet
Subjects were instructed to follow a weight maintenance diet (~55% carbohydrate, 30% fat and 15% protein) for the 12 week study period.
Drug: Metformin
Subjects continued to take their pre-study therapeutic doses of metformin (Metformin 500mg tablets taken by mouth twice daily for a total daily dose of 1000 to 2000 mg) through the 12 week study period.
Other Names:
  • Glucophage
  • Glucophage XR
  • Glumetza
  • Fortamet

Detailed Description:

Welchol (colesevelam hydrochloride) is a bile acid sequestrant (BAS) recently approved by the FDA for glucose lowering in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Four randomized, controlled clinical studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes have demonstrated significant treatment difference in HbA1c (-0.5%). Study durations ranged from 12-26 weeks of therapy. In diabetes clinical studies, a therapeutic response to colesevelam hydrochloride, as reflected by reduction in A1c was initially noted following 4-6 weeks of treatment and reached maximal or near-maximal effect after 12-18 weeks of treatment. Reductions in both fasting plasma glucose and postprandial concentrations have been demonstrated. Simple measures of insulin secretion and action have suggested that this is due to improved insulin action rather than improved insulin secretion. The mechanism by which bile acids interact with the key pathways regulating glucose concentrations is largely unknown. The investigators propose a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial with a parallel-group design where subjects are randomized to receive colesevelam or matching placebo for a 12 week treatment period. A labeled mixed meal before and after treatment will be used to measure intestinal transit, postprandial and fasting glucose fluxes, insulin secretion and action as well as enteroendocrine secretion.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   35 Years to 70 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 35-70 years old.
  • Body Mass Index greater than 19kg/m^2 or less than 40kg/m^2 or a total weight less than 130 kilograms.
  • Negative pregnancy test for women of childbearing potential.
  • Absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • Signed informed consent.
  • Treatment with diet and/or metformin. Subjects must be on stable therapeutic doses of metformin and/or lipid-lowering agents for more than 3 months.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Structural or metabolic diseases/conditions that affect the gastrointestinal system, or functional gastrointestinal disorders. A screening Bowel Disease Questionnaire will be used to exclude subjects with irritable bowel syndrome. Patients with a history of dysphagia or intestinal motility disorders will be excluded.
  • Prior history of pancreatitis.
  • Prior history of hypertriglyceridemia (500mg/dL or greater).
  • Currently using a bile-acid binding resin such as colesevelam, colestipol, colestimide or cholestyramine.
  • To ensure homogeneity between treatment groups we will exclude subjects with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus, subjects who have received an inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4 inhibitors) or "gliptins" (a class of oral hypoglycemics), Byetta or sulfonylurea agent in the past three months.
  • HbA1c greater than 9.0%.
  • Patients who have not been stable on all medications for a period exceeding 3 months.
  • Use of drugs or agents within the past 2 weeks or planned use in the subsequent 4 weeks during the study period that:

    • Alter GI transit including laxatives, magnesium or aluminum-containing antacids, prokinetics, erythromycin, narcotics, anticholinergics, tricyclic antidepressants, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and newer antidepressants.
    • Opiate-based analgesic drugs (Note: intermittent or chronic use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) will be allowed).
    • Antihistamines
    • Anticholinergic agents
  • Female subjects who are pregnant or breast-feeding. Females must be either surgically sterilized, postmenopausal (>12 months since last menses), or, if of childbearing potential, using reliable methods of contraception as determined by the physician.
  • Clinical evidence (including physical exam and Electrocardiogram) of significant cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, hepatic, gastrointestinal, hematological, neurological, psychiatric, or other disease that interfere with the objectives of the study. Any candidate participants with such disorders mentioned will be referred to their general physician.
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00951899

Locations
United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
Sponsors and Collaborators
Mayo Clinic
Daiichi Sankyo Inc.
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Adrian Vella, MD Mayo Clinic
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: Adrian Vella, MD, Professor of Medicine, Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00951899     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 08-008284, R01DK078646, R01DK082396, UL1RR024150
Study First Received: July 31, 2009
Results First Received: April 26, 2013
Last Updated: October 17, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by Mayo Clinic:
Incretins
colesevelam
hepatobiliary circulation

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Metformin
Colesevelam
Incretins
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Anticholesteremic Agents
Hypolipidemic Agents
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Lipid Regulating Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Hormones
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 28, 2014