A Pilot Study of a Thrombopoietin-Receptor Agonist (TPO-R Agonist), Eltrombopag, in Aplastic Anemia Patients With Immunosuppressive-Therapy Refractory Thrombocytopenia
Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening blood disease which can be effectively treated with immunosuppressive drug regimens or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, 20-40% of patients without transplant options do not respond to immunosuppressive therapies, and have persistent severe thrombocytopenia. Even patients that respond to immunosuppressive therapies with an improvement in their life-threatening neutropenia sometimes have persistent thrombocytopenia. Both groups of patients (i.e. nonresponders to immunosuppressive therapy and responders with persistent thrombocytopenia) require regular platelet transfusions, which are expensive and inconvenient, and are a risk for further serious bleeding complications.
Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the principal endogenous regulator of platelet production. On binding to the megakaryocyte progenitor TPO receptor, TPO initiates a number of signal transduction events to increase the production of mature megakaryocytes and platelets. Thrombopoietin also has stimulatory effects on more primitive multilineage progenitors and stem cells in vitro and in animal models. A 2nd generation small molecule TPO-agonist, eltrombopag (Promacta ) has been shown to increase platelets in healthy subjects and in thrombocytopenic patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Eltrombopag is administered orally and has been well-tolerated in clinical trials. Unlike recombinant TPO, it has not been found to induce autoantibodies. Eltrombopag received FDA accelerated approval on Nov 20, 2008 for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura who have had an insufficient response to corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, or splenectomy. Because a paucity of megakaryocytes and decreased platelet production is responsible for thrombocytopenia in aplastic anemia patients, we now propose this Phase 2, non-randomized pilot study of eltrombopag in aplastic anemia patients with immunosuppressive therapy refractory thrombocytopenia.
Subjects will initiate study medication at an oral dose of 50 mg/day (25 mg/day for East Asians), which will be increased or decreased as clinically indicated to the lowest dose that maintains a stable platelet count 20,000/(micro)L above baseline while maximizing tolerability. Treatment response is defined as platelet count increases to 20,000/(micro)L above baseline at three months. Subjects with response at 3 months may continue study medication (extended access) until they meet an off study criteria.
Drug: Eltrombopag (Promacta)
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Pilot Study of a Thrombopoietin-Receptor Agonist (TPO-R Agonist), Eltrombopag, in Aplastic Anemia Patients With Immunosuppressive-Therapy Refractory Thrombocytopenia|
- The portion of drug responders as defined by changes in the platelet count and/or platelet transfusion requirements and the toxicity profile as measured at 12 weeks using the CTCAE criteria. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
- Incidence of bleeding; changes in serum thrombopoietin level (as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, R& amp; D Systems), and health related quality of life (as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form General Heal...
|Study Start Date:||May 2009|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||December 2015|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||December 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Drug: Eltrombopag (Promacta)
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Principal Investigator:||Cynthia E Dunbar, M.D.||National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)|