Pharmacogenetic Response to Naltrexone For Alcohol Dependence
The aims of the study are to test for treatment outcome differences in alcohol dependent subjects randomly assigned to 12 weeks of treatment with NTX (50mg/day) or placebo among those with one or two copies of the Asp40 allele of the mu-opioid receptor compared to those homozygous for the Asn40 allele. Thus, the design of the study is a 2X2 cell double-blind randomization to NTX or placebo stratified by genotype. To meet these aims, 150 alcohol dependent outpatients with one or two copies of the Asp40 variant of the mu-opioid receptor and 190 subjects homozygous for the Asn40 variant will be recruited across the four participating sites.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Pharmacogenetic Response to Naltrexone for Alcohol Dependence|
- Clinical response to naltrexone, as measured by a reduction in the number of heavy drinking days (as defined by >5 drinks/day for males; >4 for females) during the 12 weeks of the trial. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- Experience of a "high" from alcohol consumption as measured on the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale, and levels of alcohol craving over time as measured on the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||January 2009|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||January 2014|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||December 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
50mg/day of naltrexone
Other Name: ReVia
Placebo Comparator: 2
Other Name: sugar pill
Despite the well established efficacy of naltrexone, there are significant variations in individual responses to naltrexone. A critical question remains: under what circumstances and for which patients will naltrexone (NTX) be most beneficial? Recent work at our center provides evidence that the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene polymorphism A118G (Asn40Asp) imparts a significant change in treatment response. We have shown that patients with 1-2 copies of the Asp40 variant have significantly better treatment responses than patients with Asn40 variant (absence of heavy drinking -73.9% v/s 49% response). To further consolidate our knowledge, we wish to test the relationship between A118G polymorphism and the response to treatment with naltrexone. This work is focused on subjects of European or Asian descent as the A118G polymorphism occurs in less than 1% of those of African descent.
The study consists of 12 weeks of outpatient treatment with 50mg/day of naltrexone or placebo. Up to 340 subjects will be recruited across four sites. The inclusion criteria include adult males and females of European or Asian descent with DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol dependence and heavy drinking per TLFB criteria. Patients with major psychiatric disorders or on psychotropic medications, other substance dependence problems (except nicotine), severe cognitive impairment, active suicidal/homicidal thoughts and serious medical conditions (including liver disorders) will be excluded.
The ultimate aim of this line of investigation is to further establish a genetic link between alcohol dependence and treatment by defining an endophenotype associated with treatment response.
Based upon these very promising findings, the aim of this study is to examine prospectively the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor (A+118G (Asn40Asp)) and response to treatment with naltrexone. A secondary aim of this study is to examine the role of the Asp40 allele in alternating the subjective effects from alcohol use in alcohol dependent individuals that have been demonstrated in human laboratory experiments.
We hypothesize that naltrexone - but not placebo - will produce a greater clinical response during the 12 weeks of the trial in subjects with one or two copies of the Asp40 variant ("Asp40 positives") than in subjects homozygous for the Asn40 allele. Response to naltrexone will be measured by a reduction in the number of heavy drinking days (as defined by >5 drinks/day for males; >4 for females) during the 12 weeks of the trial.
We also expect that there will be an interaction between medication and genotype such that, as compared to the groups on placebo or homozygous for Asn40, Asp40 positive subjects randomized to naltrexone will report less "high" from alcohol consumption (on the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and the lowest levels of alcohol craving over time (on the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale).
|United States, Pennsylvania|
|Geisinger Medical Center|
|Danville, Pennsylvania, United States, 17822|
|University of Pennsylvania Treatment Research Center|
|Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104|
|Philadelphia VA Medical Center|
|Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104|
|VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System|
|Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, United States, 15206|
|Principal Investigator:||Adam J Gordon, MD, MPH||VA Pittsburg Healthcare System|
|Principal Investigator:||David Oslin, MD||University of Pennsylvania/ Philadelphia VA Medical Center|