Effectiveness of Stem Cell Treatment for Adults With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (The FOCUS Study)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common disorder that can lead to heart failure. Not all people with CAD are eligible for today's standard treatments. One new treatment approach uses stem cells—specialized cells capable of developing into other types of cells—to stimulate growth of new blood vessels for the heart. This study will determine the safety and effectiveness of withdrawing stem cells from someone's bone marrow and injecting those cells into the person's heart as a way of treating people with CAD and heart failure.
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Biological: Adult stem cells
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Randomized, Controlled, Phase II, Double-Blind Trial of Intramyocardial Injection of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Under Electromechanical Guidance for Patients With Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Dysfunction|
- Change in Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max) [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The VO2(max) is assessed using the Naughton treadmill protocol.
- Change in Left Ventricular End Systolic Volume (LVESV)as Assessed Via Echo [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Echocardiographic measurements were performed by an echocardiographic core laboratory. LVESVs were calculated by the modified biplane Simpson method, using myocardial contrast to enhance endocardial definition. To account for patient body surface area, LVESV indices are reported.
- Change in Reversible Defect Size [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Adenosine myocardial perfusion (SPECT) tests were collected at baseline and 6 months to identify change in ischemic (reversible) defects. SPECT imaging was performed at rest and after adenosine infusion over 4 minutes. To enhance the detection of viability on resting images, sublingual nitroglycerin was administered 15 minutes before injecting technetium Tc 99m sestamibi for the resting image.
- Regional Wall Motion by MRI (in Eligible Patients) [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Regional wall motion as measured by cardiac MRI (in patients who are not contraindicated)
- Regional Blood Flow Improvement by MRI (in Eligible Patients) [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Regional blood flow improvement as measured by cardiac MRI (in patients who are not contraindicated)
- Regional Wall Motion by Echocardiography [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Movement of the left ventricular wall measured in mm from baseline to six months.
- Clinical Improvement in CCS Classification (Angina Pectoris) [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Clinical improvement in Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) functional classification of angina pectoris. The CCS scale ranges from Class I (best)"able to conduct ordinary daily activity without causing angina" to Class IV (worst) "Inability to perform any physical activity without discomfort; anginal symptoms may be present at rest." Patients receive a rating of 1-4 for their anginal symptoms. Results reflect the mean change in the total score over time.
- Clinical Improvement in NYHA Classification [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Clinical improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. The NYHA scale ranges from 1 (best)"Mild- no limitation of physical activity due to heart failure" to 4 (worst) "Severe-Unable to carry out any physical activity without discomfort due to heart failure". Patients receive a rating of 1-4 for their heart failure symptoms. Results reflect the mean change in the total score over time.
- Number of Participants With a Decrease in Anti-anginal Medication [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Number of participants with a decrease in anti-anginal medication (nitrates needed weekly)
- Exercise Time and Level [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Exercise time and level as assessed via six minute walk test. (change in number of feet walked)
- Serum BNP Levels in Patients With CHF [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Serum b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). A minority number of patients had pro-BNP collected versus regular BNP; these numbers are reported in the analysis population description.
- LV Diastolic Dimension [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dimension as assessed by contrast echocardiography
- Incidence of a Major Adverse Cardiac Event [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Incidence of major adverse cardiac events (new MI, rehospitalization for PCI in coronary artery territories that were treated, death, or rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome and for congestive heart failure).
- Reduction in Fixed Perfusion Defect(s)Via SPECT [ Time Frame: Measured at Baseline and Month 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Fixed total defect is the stress total defect minus the reversible component.
|Study Start Date:||March 2009|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2012|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Injections
Participants will receive placebo injections.
Single procedure of intramyocardial electromechanical-guided needle insertions and injection of 5% human serum albumin and saline in 15 different injection sites
Experimental: Active Stem Cell Injections
Participants will receive active stem cell injections.
Biological: Adult stem cells
Single procedure of intramyocardial electromechanical-guided injection of approximately 100 million bone marrow mononucleated cells (BM-MNCs), administered in 15 different injection sites
Coronary artery disease (CAD), a disease in which blood vessels become clogged by a build-up of plaque, is the leading cause of heart failure, a condition in which the heart can no longer pump enough blood to the rest of the body. People with heart failure caused by CAD are said to have ischemic cardiomyopathy. Normal treatment for CAD involves coronary artery bypass grafting (in which a vein from another part of the body is grafted around an artery that has become blocked) or coronary angioplasty and stent placement (in which a blocked artery is opened and a small tube is placed to keep the artery open). However, some people with ischemic cardiomyopathy, such as those with substantial scar tissue on the heart wall or those with a particular heart structure, may not be eligible for these treatments. An alternative treatment being developed is therapeutic angiogenesis, which involves stimulating the growth of new blood vessels. Recent research has shown that withdrawing stem cells from bone marrow and implanting the cells into heart tissue may be an effective way to achieve therapeutic angiogenesis. This study will determine the safety and effectiveness of using stem cells to stimulate new blood vessel growth in the hearts of people with ischemic cardiomyopathy.
Participation in this study, including follow-up visits and phone calls, will last 60 months. Participants will first undergo 3 to 4 days of screening procedures that will include a physical examination, multiple lab tests, and a battery of tests on heart health. Next, participants will be randomized to receive either active stem cell injections or placebo injections. The injections and related procedures will be performed in a hospital and last approximately 72 hours. During this time, participants in both groups will first undergo a bone marrow aspiration procedure. Participants receiving active stem cells will also undergo NOGA electromechanical cardiac mapping, which involves inserting a monitoring device through a catheter and into the heart. Injections of stem cells will then be made to 15 damaged sites on the heart through a special catheter. Participants receiving placebo injections will receive 15 injections of an inactive, saline-based solution. After the injection procedures, all participants will undergo two echocardiograms, an electrocardiogram, blood tests, and overnight monitoring in a telemetry unit.
After the hospital stay, all participants will attend five study visits that will occur 1 week and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the injection procedures. At all study visits, participants will undergo an electrocardiogram, lab tests, and a review of adverse health events. On all but the last study visit, participants will have cardiac markers assessed, and they will wear a 24-hour Holter monitor to track heart activity. At the last three visits, participants will also complete quality of life questionnaires. All participants will then receive four follow-up telephone calls that will occur 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after the injection procedures.
|United States, Florida|
|University of Florida-Department of Medicine|
|Gainesville, Florida, United States, 32611|
|United States, Minnesota|
|Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation|
|Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55407|
|United States, Ohio|
|Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195|
|United States, Tennessee|
|Vanderbilt University Medical Center|
|Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 37232|
|United States, Texas|
|Texas Heart Institute|
|Houston, Texas, United States, 77225|
|Study Chair:||Robert Simari, MD||Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network|