Varenicline Effects on Cue Reactivity and Smoking Reward/Reinforcement
The purpose of this study was to find out how varenicline works to help people quit smoking. Varenicline, also known as Chantix™, is an U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication that has been shown to help people quit smoking. This study was trying to evaluate whether varenicline would change the response to smoking and the desire for cigarettes when compared to an inactive placebo control. This was not a quit smoking treatment study, and participants were not asked or required to stop smoking while in this study.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator)
|Official Title:||Varenicline Effects on Cue Reactivity and Smoking Reward/Reinforcement|
- Tonic Craving Score (QSU) Based on Self Reports [ Time Frame: 3 weeks per participant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Tonic Craving 1 (lowest) to 7 (highest). The Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU), our primary measure of tonic craving, is a 32-item instrument, including 2 separate factor scales that roughly correspond to the desire to smoke for its pleasurable effects (positive reinforcement) or to remove unpleasant feelings of negative affect or withdrawal (negative reinforcement) (Tiffany and Drobes 1991). Following overnight abstinence, each session included assessment of tonic craving, reactivity (including craving) to smoking cues.
- Cue-provoked Cravings [ Time Frame: 3 weeks per participant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Strength of Craving 0 (lowest) to 20 (highest). One item 0 - 20 Likert scale "How strong was your craving to smoke a cigarette?"
- Smoking Topography - Number of Puffs on a Cigarette [ Time Frame: 3 weeks per participant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]# Puffs = total number of puffs taken at Assessment Session.
- A Measure of the Subjective Expected Value of a Cigarette [ Time Frame: 3 weeks per participant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The cigarette choice procedure (Kidorf, Stitzer, and Griffiths, 1995) is a measure of the desire to smoke a cigarette. Participants are asked to hypothetically choose between smoking a cigarette now or receiving a small amount of money (from 10 cents up to $6 in increments of 10 cents). A crossover ($) value, at and above which participants prefer money, is obtained (Reid, Palmar, Raghavan, and Flammino, 2007).
|Study Start Date:||September 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||August 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||August 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Varenicline
For participants in the varenicline group, the medication doses followed the recommended dose schedule for the first 15 days of treatment: 0.5 mg once a day on days 1-3, 0.5 mg twice a day on days 4-7, and 1 mg twice a day on days 8-15.
Participants in this group received varenicline according to the schedule in the Arm Description.
Other Name: Chantix™
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Participants in this group received a placebo instead of medication. The placebo was taken once a day on days 1-3, twice a day on days 4-15.
Participants in this group received a placebo and did not receive any active medication according to the schedule in the Arm Description.
We proposed the following primary hypotheses:
- Tonic (i.e., non-cue-provoked) craving levels would be lower in participants receiving varenicline versus placebo.
- Cue-provoked cravings (self-report and physiological responding) would be lower in participants receiving varenicline versus placebo. (Secondary indices of craving include heart rate and skin conductance.)
- The two primary indices of nicotine reward/reinforcement (mCEQ and choice index) would be lower in participants receiving varenicline versus placebo. (Secondary indices of nicotine reinforcement include smoking topography variables.)
A final sample of 100 non-treatment seeking daily smokers were recruited from the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater Metropolitan Area via paid advertisements in, and press releases to, local newspapers, as well as targeted outdoor advertising via flyers (e.g., on public transportation).
Following the screening session, participants were randomly assigned to receive either varenicline or placebo medication.
|United States, Florida|
|H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute|
|Tampa, Florida, United States, 33612|
|Principal Investigator:||Thomas Brandon, Ph.D.||H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute|