Primary Outcome Measures:
- fetal heart rate [ Time Frame: 120 minutes ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- fetal movement [ Time Frame: 120 minutes ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- neonatal abstinence syndrome [ Time Frame: 4 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Little is known about the link between maternal physiology, fetal neurobehavior and neonatal abstinence syndrome in multiply drug-dependent women. Previous research by this group of investigators has found that the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome in methadone exposed infants is related to maternal vagal tone changes in response to methadone during pregnancy. While previous research has focused on drug abstinent, methadone maintained women, most drug dependent pregnant women are poly-substance abusers who also use prescription psychiatric medications, alcohol and nicotine. This protocol seeks to further our understanding of the effects of multiple drugs on the fetus, including the co-variate effects of maternal psychological status. Infant neurobehavior and vagal tone will also be evaluated. This research will extend our knowledge of fetal neurobehavioral development and neonatal abstinence syndrome in a realistic population of poly-drug dependent women, potentially altering the way in which these women are evaluated and their infants monitored and treated for neonatal abstinence syndrome.