DaunoXome + Ara-C vs Daunorubicin + Ara-C in Elderly AML
Overall results in the treatment of middle aged adults acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are substantially improved in the last decade, with complete remission (CR) rates established to values of 70 to 80per cent and also encouraging long-term outcome, especially in patients who can tolerate intensified post remissional treatment strategies. On the contrary, there has been little progress in the treatment of older patients. In these patients the response rate generally range between 40 and 60per cent, and overall survival at 2 years is often less than 10 per cent.
Usually, a combination of anthracyclines daunomycin DNR or doxorubicin and cytarabyne Ara-C has been utilized for the remission-induction treatment, with schedules similar to those utilized in younger cases, for patients eligible to intensive treatments. Variation of the dose of DNR has not brought any significant benefit. The EORTC HOVON randomized trial AML9 compared two drugs in induction for previously untreated patients. DNR versus Mithoxantrone (MTZ). MTZ induction therapy produces a slightly better CR rate than DNR-containing regimen (47per cent vs 38per cent, P equals 0.069), without any significant effect on remission duration and survival. The DFS probability between the two treatment arms was not different. The median DFS estimates were 39 weeks in both groups. The DFS rate at 5 years was 8per cent. Also the duration of survival was similar (p equals 0.23) in the two treatment groups. Median survival estimates were 36 weeks (DNR) and 39 weeks (MTZ). The percentage of patients still alive at 5 years were 6per cent and 9per cent respectively.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||DaunoXome (Liposomal Daunorubicin) Plus Ara-C Versus Daunorubicin Plus Ara-C in Elderly AML Patients.A Randomized Phase III Study.|
- Efficacy and safety of DaunoXome in association with cytosine arabinoside in terms of reduction of induction deaths respect to standard "3+7" chemotherapy [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
- Efficacy, in terms of DFS, of maintenance therapy with low-dose of Ara-C plus ATRA versus no maintenance therapy [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||October 2001|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2005|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2005 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: 1
It can be stated that single agent DaunoXome seems associated with a level of anti-leukemic activity at least equivalent to the conventional drugs available. In addition, the safety profile of DaunoXome either as a single agent either as a combination with Ara-C seems improved with respect to the conventionally administered anthracyclines. Therefore, it seems warranted to further explore the anti-leukemic activity, the toxicity and the long term results of DaunoXome as a treatment for AML in association with Ara-C against the parent compound daunorubicin. In particular, we propose a study to evaluate standard 3+7 schedule versus the same schedule with DaunoXome instead of daunorubicine as front line treatment in AML patients older than 60 years. Patients achieving a CR will receive a consolidation cycle with the same drugs at the same doses. After consolidation, patients in CR will be randomized to receive a maintenance treatment with low-dose Ara-C plus Atra versus no treatment.