Neck Surgery in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Oral Cancer

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified July 2009 by National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by:
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier:
First received: December 11, 2007
Last updated: August 23, 2013
Last verified: July 2009

RATIONALE: Surgery may be an effective treatment for oral cancer. It is not yet known whether surgery to remove the tumor and lymph nodes in the neck is more effective than surgery to remove the tumor alone in treating patients with early-stage oral cancer.

PURPOSE: This randomized clinical trial is comparing two types of neck surgery to see how well they work in treating patients with early stage oral cancer.

Condition Intervention
Head and Neck Cancer
Other: questionnaire administration
Procedure: psychosocial assessment and care
Procedure: quality-of-life assessment
Procedure: regional lymph node dissection
Procedure: therapeutic conventional surgery

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: SEND Trial The Role of Selective Neck Dissection Used Electively in Patients With Early Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (1-3cm Primary Size) and No Clinical Evidence of Lymph Node Metastases in the Neck

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Overall survival [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Disease-free survival [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Local and regional recurrence [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Completeness of resection at the primary site [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Quality-of-life as measured by the EORTC QLQ-30 & H&N module [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Psychological well-being as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at 6, 12, and 24 months [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Costs to NHS, patients, and carers/families [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Incremental cost per life-year saved and/or per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Estimated Enrollment: 652
Study Start Date: January 2007
Estimated Primary Completion Date: December 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Detailed Description:


  • To determine whether the use of a selective neck dissection (SEND) used electively on all patients presenting with stage I-II oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) improves survival, disease-free survival, and loco-regional disease control rates.
  • To determine how SEND and complex reconstruction affect quality of life and mental health.
  • To determine whether the use of SEND on all patients presenting with stage I-II oral cavity SCC represents a cost-effective use of resources.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study. Patients are stratified by age (< 40 vs 40-64 vs ≥ 65 years of age), tumor stage (T1 vs T2), and surgeon.

  • Arm I: Patients undergo resection of the primary tumor with neck dissection.
  • Arm II: Patients undergo resection of the primary tumor alone. Patients complete the EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ - H&N35, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Patients also complete the EQ-5D questionnaire at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. Additionally, a self-completion Health Service Use questionnaire is completed every 2 months, during the first 24 months after treatment, to enable costs to the NHS to be monitored.

After surgery, patients are followed periodically for up to 5 years.

Peer Reviewed and Funded or Endorsed by Cancer Research UK.


Ages Eligible for Study:   16 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma measuring 1 to 3 cm at the primary site
  • No clinical or preoperative imaging evidence of nodal involvement in the neck (N0)
  • Surgery is the primary mode of treatment

    • Dose not need reconstruction that necessitates opening the neck, as assessed by the surgeon
  • No cancer of the lip
  • No prior head and neck tumor


  • No technical, medical, or anaesthetic difficulties that preclude patients being entered into one of the trial arms
  • Not considered to be medically, socially, or psychiatrically unfit for surgery as first-line treatment by the multidisciplinary team
  • No other synchronous tumor
  • No preference for non-surgical treatment


  • See Disease Characteristics
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00571883

United Kingdom
Queen Elizabeth Hospital at University Hospital of Birmingham NHS Trust Recruiting
Birmingham, England, United Kingdom, B15 2TH
Contact: Contact Person    44-121-414-5346      
Cumberland Infirmary Recruiting
Carlisle, England, United Kingdom, CA2 7HY
Contact: Contact Person    44-122-881-4222      
Queen Alexandra Hospital Recruiting
Cosham, England, United Kingdom, PO6 3LY
Contact: Contact Person    44-23-8079-5153      
Derbyshire Royal Infirmary Recruiting
Derby, England, United Kingdom, DE1 2QY
Contact: Contact Person    44-1332-347-141 ext. 24      
St. Luke's Cancer Centre at Royal Surrey County Hospital Recruiting
Guildford, England, United Kingdom, GU2 7XX
Contact: Contact Person    44-1483-571-122 ext. 44      
Leicester Royal Infirmary Recruiting
Leicester, England, United Kingdom, LE1 5WW
Contact: Contact Person    44-116-258-6318      
Lincoln County Hospital Recruiting
Lincoln, England, United Kingdom, LN2 5QY
Contact: Contact Person    44-1522-573-202      
Aintree University Hospital Recruiting
Liverpool, England, United Kingdom, L9 7AL
Contact: Contact Person    44-151-334-1155      
Facial Surgery Research Foundation Recruiting
London, England, United Kingdom, EC1A 7BE
Contact: Iain Hutchison    44-207-601-7582      
St. George's Hospital Recruiting
London, England, United Kingdom, SW17 0QT
Contact: Contact Person    44-208-661-3049 ext. 3      
University College of London Hospitals Recruiting
London, England, United Kingdom, WIT 3AA
Contact: Contact Person    44-207-679-9895      
Saint Bartholomew's Hospital Recruiting
London, England, United Kingdom, EC1A 7BE
Contact: Contact Person    44-207-601-7582   
Luton and Dunstable Hospital Recruiting
Luton-Bedfordshire, England, United Kingdom, LU4 0DZ
Contact: Contact Person    44-158-249-7333      
Wythenshawe Hospital Recruiting
Manchester, England, United Kingdom, M23 9LJ
Contact: Contact Person    44-161-237-2538      
Freeman Hospital Recruiting
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England, United Kingdom, NE7 7DN
Contact: Contact Person    44-191-291-9432      
Northampton General Hospital Recruiting
Northampton, England, United Kingdom, NN1 5BD
Contact: Contact Person    44-160-454-4579      
Queen's Medical Centre Recruiting
Nottingham, England, United Kingdom, NG7 2UH
Contact: Contact Person    44-115-924-9924 ext. 68915      
Pennine Acute Hospitals Recruiting
Oldham, England, United Kingdom, OL1 2PN
Contact: Contact Person    44-161-720-2143      
Queen's Hospital Recruiting
Romford, England, United Kingdom, RM7 0AG
Contact: Contact Person    44-207-601-8815      
Sunderland Royal Hospital Recruiting
Sunderland, England, United Kingdom, SR4 7TP
Contact: Contact Person    44-191-569-9132      
Torbay Hospital Recruiting
Torquay, England, United Kingdom, TQ2 7AA
Contact: Contact Person    44-180-365-4834      
New Cross Hospital Recruiting
Wolverhampton, England, United Kingdom, WV10 0QP
Contact: Contact Person    44-1902-694-430      
Falkirk and District Royal Infirmary Recruiting
Falkirk, Scotland, United Kingdom, FK1 5QE
Contact: Contact Person    44-132-461-6419      
Southern General Hospital Recruiting
Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, G51 4TF
Contact: Contact Person    44-141-201-1100      
Crosshouse Hospital Recruiting
Kilmarnock, Scotland, United Kingdom, KA2 OBE
Contact: Contact Person    44-156-357-7488      
University Hospital of Wales Recruiting
Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, CF14 4XW
Contact: Contact Person    44-2920-196-193      
Barnet General Hospital Recruiting
Barnet, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, EN5 3DJ
Contact: Contact Person    44-208-375-2098      
Sponsors and Collaborators
The Facial Surgery Research Foundation
Study Chair: Iain Hutchison The Facial Surgery Research Foundation
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided Identifier: NCT00571883     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000577728, FSRF-SEND-001, EU-20794
Study First Received: December 11, 2007
Last Updated: August 23, 2013
Health Authority: Unspecified

Keywords provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):
stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the lip and oral cavity
stage II squamous cell carcinoma of the lip and oral cavity
tongue cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms, Squamous Cell processed this record on October 23, 2014