Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, is among the most common neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide (5-10% at school age) and in Taiwan (7.5%). The DSM-IV ADHD consists of three subtypes: predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), predominantly Hyperactivity/Impulsivity (ADHD-H), and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C). Although the DSM-IV field trials indicate that the current subtypes differ significantly on variables such as age of onset, gender ratio, and level of social and academic impairment, little has been addressed whether the DSM-IV subtypes differ neuropsychologically. Numerous researches have proved that stimulants (methylphenidate is the only stimulant in Taiwan) are the most effective medication in treating ADHD. Although the efficacy of methylphenidate on behavioral measures has been established in Taiwan, there is no information about neuropsychological measures.
- to validate ADHD subtype by neuropsychological measures; and
- to investigate the efficacy of methylphenidate on the improvement of executive functioning among children with ADHD.
Subjects and Methods: Participants will consist of 20 children with ADHD-C, 20 with ADHD-I, 10 with ADHD-H and 50 controls without ADHD in the age range of 7 to 10. The measures include the psychiatric interviews (Chinese K-SADS-E), neuropsychological tests (WISC-III, Cancellation Test, Digit Span, Trail Making Test, CPT, Circle Tracing Test), self-administered rating scale (SNAP-IV), and investigator administered assessment (CGI and Behavior Observation Ratings).
Anticipated Results: We anticipated that children in the ADHD and non-ADHD group will perform differently on the neuropsychological tests with more deficits in neuropsychological functions in the ADHD group. Also, we expected that methylphenidate will improve the performance on the neuropsychological tests and reduce the behavioral symptoms of ADHD children. Subtypes difference in the neuropsychological functions is also expected.