Is Paracetamol an Effective Treatment for Chronic Moderate Pain in the Newborn After Operative Vaginal Delivery?
There are many reasons for using a vacuum apparatus or forceps to assist in delivering a baby. The traction and pressure on the baby`s head due to the vacuum apparatus or forceps may cause pain and discomfort for some time after the delivery. To date, the pain experienced by the newborn and the potential beneficial effects of pain medications after vacuum or forceps deliveries have not been systematically studied. It is possible that administration of paracetamol suppositories to the newborn may be helpful in these situations, since this medication is known to ameliorate pain in older children and adults.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Is Paracetamol an Effective Treatment for Chronic Moderate Pain in the Newborn After Operative Vaginal Delivery?|
- Measurement of pain reaction using the EDIN scale on the first day of life and evaluation of the stress-reaction after the Guthrie test with duration of crying, saliva cortisol and "Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates"
- Validation of the Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates and the EDIN scale. Comparison between different types of vacuum extractors in view of neonatal pain. Comparison of different modes of delivery in view of neonatal pain and stress-reaction.
|Study Start Date:||June 2007|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||March 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) given at 2 and 8 hours post birth, measurement of EDIN-Score on day one of life, measurement of stress response after Guthrie-test on day 4 of life.
|Drug: Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)|
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo given at 2 and 8 hours post birth, measurement of EDIN-Score on day one of life, measurement of stress response after Guthrie-test on day 4 of life.
How will this study be conducted?
The study will be conducted in the Women`s University Hospital of Basel, the Women`s University Hospital of Zurich and the Women`s University Hospital of Bern. Newborn infants born with the aid of a vacuum or forceps will be included, with the explicit permission of their parents. The children will receive a rectal suppository, which will be prepared by the pharmacy at the Women`s University Hospital of Basel, at two and eight hours of postnatal age. These children will receive either paracetamol or a placebo, which will be randomly assigned. The doctors, the midwives, nurses and other people involved in the care of the child will not know which medication had been given. Only the pharmacy has access to this information, which can be obtained only in emergency situations. The child will be regularly monitored for signs of pain or discomfort.
In Switzerland, all newborn babies are tested at three days of age for thyroid and other rare but treatable diseases by taking a blood sample from the heel. Newborns that participate in this study will be observed after this blood draw to see how long they show signs of pain or discomfort. In addition, sputum tests before and after the blood draw will be taken in order to measure the level of cortisone (a measurement of stress).
What measures will be performed?
- Two suppositories, either with or without paracetamol, will be administered (only to children in the study group, that is, those that were born with the aid of a vacuum or forceps).
- On the first day of life, at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after delivery, a midwife or nurse will examine the newborn (EDIN scale) and determine if he or she has pain, and if so, will indicate how strong the pain appears to be.
- On the fourth day of life, at the same time that the standard blood screening tests for metabolic diseases are performed, a saliva test to identify the stress hormone cortisol will be taken before and after the blood tests and the pain reaction will be measured. The length of time that the child cries after the blood test has been performed will be observed and filmed, in order to more accurately determine the duration of the crying. This film will be destroyed after the study has been completed.
- As with all other newborns, we will give the child a small amount of sugar solution before taking the blood sample to reduce the pain. The efficacy of this measure has been well documented.
No child will have additional blood tests outside of the routinely performed screening tests through participation in this study.
In order to determine whether babies born by caesarean section or without any assistance through instruments such as vacuum or forceps experience less pain and have a less dramatic stress reaction, we will enroll also children, who were born without the aid of one of these instruments, for observation in this study. They will not receive any medication.
|Basel, womens university hospital|
|Basel, BS, Switzerland, 4031|
|Neonatology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Inselspital Berne|
|Berne, Switzerland, 3010|
|Neonatology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Zurich|
|Zurich, Switzerland, 8091|
|Principal Investigator:||Irene Hösli, Prof. Dr. med.||Basel, womens university hospital|