Drug: Dextromethorphan and Caffeine
All subjects received standard medical therapy with rhGH and at specified times low doses of the pharmacologic "probes" (e.g., caffeine and dextromethorphan) as surrogate markers to determine CYP450 activity. The only direct treatment effect measured was the biological response to rhGH.
Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency is a prominent cause of short stature, affecting approximately 14,000 children in the US. Although a single study has demonstrated reduces CYP1A2 activity following Gh replacement therapy, the effect of GH on the most abundant phase 1 biotransformation pathways (e.g. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) remain largely uncharacterized. This information gap exists largely due to the lack of sufficiently safe, specific and non-invasive methods appropriate for the longitudinal evaluation of enzyme activity in young children. We can overcome these problems by employing validated phenotyping methods using caffeine, a commonly ingested dietary substance and dextromethorphan, a safe, non-sedating over the counter anti-tussive agent. Application of these methods will permit us to identify, characterize and describe the isoform-specific effects of rhGH on major phase 1 hepatic drug biotransformation pathways, thereby addressing this information gap with minimal risk to children.