Islet Allotransplantation With Steroid Free Immunosuppression
The restoration of endogenous insulin secretion carries significant hopes for shifting the paradigm of life long exogenous insulin therapy in selected groups of patients with type 1 diabetes(T1D). After decades of frustrating clinical attempts, the Edmonton group set up in 2000 new standards for islet transplantation in patients with brittle T1D by achieving insulin independence in 80 percent of patients. These seminal results have however proved much more difficult to duplicate than initially expected.
This single center phase 2 clinical trial, duplicating the Edmonton protocol, is designed for confirming the consistent short term efficacy and safety of sequential islet allotransplantation with steroid free immunosuppression in patients with severe T1D.
Type 1 Diabetes
Procedure: islet transplantation
Drug: daclizumab - sirolimus - tacrolimus
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Sequential Islet Transplantation With Steroid Free Immunosuppression for Type 1 Diabetes|
- Composite Criteria: Insulin Independence and Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Under 6.5% at One Year [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The percentage of insulin independents subjects with an HbA1c less than 6.5% at one year after last transplant
- Hypoglycemic Events [ Time Frame: day 0 to day 365 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Percentage of subjects free of severe hypoglycemic events from day 0 to day 365 with the day of transplant designated day 0
- Plasma C-peptide [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Level of plasma C-peptide at 1 year after the first transplant
- HbA1c < 6.5% [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The percentage of subjects with HbA1c < 6.5% at 1 year after the first transplant
- Percentage of Time Spent in Hypoglycemia (<0.70 mg/L) [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]percentage of time spent in hypoglycemia derived from CGMS (Continuous Glucose Monitoring System)
- Number of Adverse Events [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]The number of adverse events related to the procedure and to the immunosuppression
|Study Start Date:||May 2003|
|Study Completion Date:||February 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||October 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: islet transplantation
Each participant received up to three sequential fresh islet infusions within three months.
Procedure: islet transplantation
Islet transplantation consisted of up to three sequential fresh islet infusions within three months. Access to the portal vein was gained under general anesthesia by percutaneous catheterisation of a peripheral portal branch under ultrasound guidance or by surgical catheterisation of a small mesenteric vein.
Other Names:Drug: daclizumab - sirolimus - tacrolimus
Immunosuppressive consisted of Tacrolimus, target through level at 3-6 ng/ml, Sirolimus, target through level at 12-15 ng/ml for three months and at 7-10 ng/ml thereafter. A five-dose induction course of Daclizumab 1mg/Kg was administered biweekly beginning one hour prior to the first infusion
The short term effectiveness of islet transplantation for alleviating hypoglycemia and controlling glucose homeostasis while limiting or even avoiding the nedd for exogenous insulin has been established despite protocol modifications in donor selection, islet preparation or recipient treatment, insulin independence with adequate metabolic control was however rarely prolonged beyond two years. The most frequently proposed explanations include chronic allogenic rejection, recurrence of autoimmunity and beta cell toxicity from administered immunosuppressive drugs.
Fourteen patients were enrolled in this single center phase 2 trial initiated in 2003. Eligible patients were males or females between 18 and 65 years of age, with type 1 diabeted documented for more than 5 years, arginine stimulated C-peptide lower than 0.2ng/ml, and hypoglycemia awareness or documented metabolic lability. Exclusion criteria included body mass index greater than 28Kg/m2, unstable arteriopathy or heart disease, active infection, previous transplantation, insulin daily requirements above 1.2 UI/kg, creatinin clearance below 60 ml/mn/m2 or urinary albumin excretion above 300 mg/day, malignancy, smoking, desire for pregnancy, psychiatric disorders and lack of compliance. The study primary efficacy endpoint was graft survival defined as insulin independence and HbA1c<6.5%. Secondary outcomes were graft function and metabolic control.
|University Hospital of Lille|
|Lille, France, 59037|
|Principal Investigator:||Francois Pattou, MD||University Hospital, Lille|
|Principal Investigator:||Marie-Christine Vantyghem, MD PhD||University Hospital, Lille|
|Principal Investigator:||Julie Kerr-Conte, PhD||Université de Lille 2|