Azacitidine, Darbepoetin Alfa, and Erythropoietin and Filgastrim (G-CSF) in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as azacitidine, work in different ways to stop the growth of abnormal cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Colony-stimulating factors, such as darbepoetin alfa and G-CSF, may increase the number of red blood cells and white blood cells found in bone marrow or peripheral blood and may help the immune system recover from the side effects of chemotherapy. Giving azacitidine together with darbepoetin alfa and G-CSF may be an effective treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes.
PURPOSE: This clinical trial is studying how well giving azacitidine together with darbepoetin alfa and G-CSF works in treating patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.
Drug: Azacitadine and Hematopoietic Growth Factors
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Combination of Azacitadine and Hematopoietic Growth Factors for Myelodysplastic Syndrome|
- Number of Participants With Complete Response [ Time Frame: Approximately 112 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Complete response is normalization of abnormal blood counts, and disappearance of signs of morphological changes in the bone marrow. If the previously present cytogenetic abnormalities are absent then it is referred also as a cytogenetic complete remission.
- Rate of Major Hematological Improvement [ Time Frame: Approximately 112 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]For patients with pretreatment hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL, greater than 2 g/dL increase in hemoglobin; for red cell transfusion-dependent patients, transfusion independence.
- Minor Hematological Improvements [ Time Frame: Approximately 112 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]For patients with pretreatment platelet count less than 100,000/mm3, a 50% or more increase in platelet count with a net increase greater than 10,000/mm3 but less than 30,000/mm3
- Time to Progression to Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Blast ≥ 20%) or Death [ Time Frame: Approximately 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Death during treatment or disease progression characterized by worsening of cytopenias, increase in the percentage of the blasts, reduction of hemoglobin concentration by at least 2 g/dl or transfusion dependence in the absence of another explanation, such as acute infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemolysis.
- Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Approximately 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- Change in Bone Marrow Apoptosis [ Time Frame: Baseline and approximately 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- Expression of p53 and p21 [ Time Frame: Approximately 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||September 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||September 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Azacitadine and Hematopoietic Growth Factors
Combination of Azacitadine andHematopoietic Growth Factors
Drug: Azacitadine and Hematopoietic Growth Factors
Combination of Azacitadine and Hematopoietic Growth Factors
- Determine the hematological response rate in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azacitidine, darbepoetin alfa, and filgrastim (G-CSF).
- Determine the time to leukemia progression, survival, and changes in apoptotic index of bone marrow in patients treated with this regimen.
OUTLINE: This is an open-label, nonrandomized study.
- Initial therapy (courses 1 and 2): Patients receive azacitidine subcutaneously (SC) or intra-venous (IV) on days 1-5 (week 1) and darbepoetin alfa* SC on day 8 (week 2). Treatment repeats every 28 days for 2 courses.
Patients undergo bone marrow aspirate and biopsy to assess response. Patients with a major hematological improvement OR with grade 3-4 hematological toxicities during the first 2 courses of therapy AND/OR ≥ 50% reduction in bone marrow cellularity compared to baseline proceed to optimization therapy A. Patients not meeting any of the above criteria proceed to optimization therapy B. Patients with disease progression are removed from study.
- Optimization therapy A (courses 3-8): Patients receive azacitidine SC or IV on days 1-5 (week 1), darbepoetin alfa** SC on day 8 (week 2), and filgrastim (G-CSF) SC 3 times weekly in weeks 2-4.
- Optimization therapy B (courses 3-8): Patients receive a higher dose of azacitidine on days 1-5 (week 1), darbepoetin alfa** SC on day 8 (week 2), and G-CSF 3 times weekly in weeks 2-4.
In both optimization therapy A and B, treatment repeats every 28 days for 6 courses. Patients with any degree of hematological improvement after initial therapy and optimization therapy proceed to maintenance therapy.
- Maintenance therapy (course 9 and all subsequent courses): Patients receive azacitidine on days 1-5 (week 1). Only patients with anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL) and/or neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1,500/mm ³) at the start of any given course during maintenance therapy receive darbepoetin alfa** SC beginning on day 8 (week 2) and continuing once every 21 days and G-CSF SC 3 times weekly beginning in week 2.
Courses repeat every 28-56 days (determined by the treating physician) in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Bone marrow samples are obtained at baseline and after the completion of course 2 of study treatment for apoptosis analysis, flow cytometry, and gene expression profiles of p53 and p21 by immunohistochemistry. Peripheral blood samples are obtained periodically and analyzed for hemoglobin F quantitation.
NOTE: *Administered only if the patient is anemic (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL).
NOTE: **Darbepoetin alfa is held if hemoglobin > 12 g/dL on day 1 of a given cycle.
|United States, North Carolina|
|Wake Forest University Comprehensive Cancer Center|
|Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States, 27157-1096|
|Principal Investigator:||Bayard L. Powell, MD||Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University|