No genetic testing will be performed on any of the samples being obtained. The biologic samples will be under the control of the principal investigator of this research project. To protect confidentiality, all personal identifiers (i.e., name, social security number, and birth date) will be removed (de-identified) and replaced with a specific code number. The information linking these code numbers to the corresponding subjects' identities will be kept in a separate, secure location. The investigators on this study will keep the samples indefinitely. If a subject withdraws and provides the request in writing, samples collected and not already processed will be destroyed. All samples will be kept in the investigator's laboratory located in Scaife Hall, Room 812, 3550 Terrace Street.
The following variables will be followed: age, sex, hospital location at the time of positive culture (ER, medical ward, ICU etc), prior hospitalization or nursing home admission, receipt of outpatient dialysis or other regular medical care (eg, outpatient chemotherapy), presence of invasive devices, receipt of antibiotics, including their type and whether they were adequate for the resistance profile of the organism, prior positive microbiologic cultures.