Pneumococcal Vaccination of Fiji Infants

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by:
University of Melbourne
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00170612
First received: September 13, 2005
Last updated: October 20, 2008
Last verified: October 2008
  Purpose

Pneumonia is the most common reason for admission of Fijian children to hospitals. The most common germ causing pneumonia is "streptococcus pneumoniae." It is a common cause of meningitis (infection around the brain and spinal cord), ear infections, and blood infections and it lives in the nose of humans. A vaccine has been developed that will help prevent these common diseases but prevents only about one quarter of pneumonia cases and it is expensive. This study explores new ways of giving this vaccine that are affordable, safe, and effective in countries such as Fiji. About 550 Fijian infants presenting at 6 weeks of age, for their first diptheria, tetanus, toxoid, pertussis vaccine immunization, to one of the participating Health Centers or Colonial War Memorial Hospital in urban Suva, Fiji will be enrolled. Children will remain in the study for 2 years. Study procedures include full vaccination against 7 types of pneumococcus, blood tests, and nasal swabs.


Condition Intervention Phase
Pneumococcal Infections
Biological: Pneumovax 23
Biological: Prevnar
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Single-Blind Open-Label Randomized Phase II Study of the Safety, Immunogenicity and Impact on Pneumococcus (Pnc) Carriage of the Pnc Vaccination Regimens Combining 1, 2, or 3 Doses of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) in the First 4 Months of Life Followed by a Single Dose of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPS) at 12 Months of Age

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of Melbourne:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • For each serotype assayed (23 for ELISA and 11 for functional assays) the proportion of children responding to the micro-PPS dose at 18 months and the GMC of the response will be compared between children who receive PPS at 12 months and those who do not [ Time Frame: 19 months of age ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Proportion of children showing hyporesponse at 18 months to more than half of all 23 serotypes [ Time Frame: 18 weeks; 12.5 months of age ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Immunogenicity and carriage: Immune responses following the primary series of conjugate vaccination, measured by ELISA and OPA will be compared between the group receiving two doses of PCV and those receiving 3 doses of vaccine [ Time Frame: 18 months of age ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Rate of decline: assessment of antibody levels [ Time Frame: 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 552
Study Start Date: November 2005
Study Completion Date: August 2008
Primary Completion Date: January 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: A
PCV at 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks; PPS at 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype
Biological: Prevnar
7-valent PCV, 2 micrograms/serotype, except serotype 6B which is 4 micrograms/serotype
Experimental: B
PCV at 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks; PPS at 12 months and 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype
Biological: Prevnar
7-valent PCV, 2 micrograms/serotype, except serotype 6B which is 4 micrograms/serotype
Experimental: C
PCV at 6 weeks and 14 weeks; PPS at 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype
Biological: Prevnar
7-valent PCV, 2 micrograms/serotype, except serotype 6B which is 4 micrograms/serotype
Experimental: D
PCV at 6 weeks and 14 weeks; PPS at 12 months and 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype
Biological: Prevnar
7-valent PCV, 2 micrograms/serotype, except serotype 6B which is 4 micrograms/serotype
Experimental: E
PCV at 14 weeks; PPS at 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype
Biological: Prevnar
7-valent PCV, 2 micrograms/serotype, except serotype 6B which is 4 micrograms/serotype
Experimental: F
PCV at 14 weeks; PPS at 12 months and 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype
Biological: Prevnar
7-valent PCV, 2 micrograms/serotype, except serotype 6B which is 4 micrograms/serotype
Experimental: G
No PCV; PPS at 12 months and 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype
Active Comparator: H
No PCV; PPS at 18 months
Biological: Pneumovax 23
23-valent PPS, 25 micrograms/serotype

Detailed Description:

This research project began as a study of alternative strategies for Pnc (Pneumococcus) immunization for children in developing countries. In the original study, infants presenting to a health center in urban Fiji were randomized to receive 1, 2, or 3 doses of PCV (Prevnar) followed by a dose of 23-valent PPS (Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) at 6 or 9 months of age. The regimens were compared with each other and with 2 control groups with respect to immunogenicity, impact on carriage of vaccine type Pnc, and response to a small dose of PPS at 15 months of age. After the trial was underway and 228 infants had been recruited, concerns were raised about the safety of PPS in infancy. Specifically concerns were raised that it might result in later immunological hyporesponsiveness in some of the recipients, to some of the serotypes. After a thorough review it was decided to proceed with the study, but to modify it so that it addressed directly the issue of potential hyporesponsiveness, while not giving PPS to any children under 12 months of age. This protocol represents the completion of the study with the new design for the children already enrolled, and a new design for a further cohort of children who will be enrolled. The newly designed trial will be a single blind, open-label, randomized, controlled trial of 550 healthy infants. Infants will be randomized to 1 of 8 equal groups to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of PCV (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine), with or without a booster of PPS at 12 months of age. Two control groups will be recruited, 1 will receive no PCV in infancy and the other will receive a dose of PPS at 12 months of age. At 18 months of age, all infants will receive a 20 percent dose of PPS to stimulate and allow the assessment of immunological memory. At 2 years of age, any child who has received no or one dose of PCV (Groups E, F, G and H) will receive a single dose of PCV. Blood samples will be taken at 18 weeks age, 12 months of age, before the 18 months dose and 4 weeks later. In addition half of the children will have a blood sample taken at 9 months and the other half will have a sample taken 2 weeks after their 12 month dose of PPS. The 9- and 12-month blood sample will assess the long-term persistence of circulating antibody and avidity maturation following a 1, 2, or 3 dose primary series of PCV. The primary objective is to demonstrate noninferiority at 19 months of age, of those groups receiving PPS at 12 months and those who do not with respect to the proportion of children in each group, with a satisfactory immune response at 19 months of age, measured by OPA to each of the 11 serotypes included in the PPS for which an OPA has been developed. The secondary objective is to assess the immunogenicity and impact on carriage of various Pnc vaccination regimens that combine 1 to 3 doses of PCV with a dose of PPS, concerns regarding the potential for the development of hyporesponsiveness. Endpoints to be evaluated will include serotype specific immunoglobulin G antibody measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to the 23 serotypes in the PPS, avidity assays to the same serotypes, opsonophagocytic assays to the 11 serotypes for which these assays are currently available, and Pnc carriage by serotype. With hyporesponsiveness as the primary endpoint of interest a scheme of analysis has been proposed which will require a minimum sample size of 500.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Weeks to 8 Weeks
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Healthy infant aged between 6 and 8 weeks
  2. No significant maternal or perinatal history
  3. Written and signed parental/caregiver consent
  4. Lives within 30 minutes of the health clinic
  5. Family anticipate living in the study area for the next 2 years

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Known allergy to any component of the vaccine
  2. Allergic reaction or anaphylactoid reaction with previous vaccines
  3. Known immunodeficiency disorder
  4. HIV positive mother (many women are tested for HIV antenatally, however a test is not planned; therefore it would be based on clinic records or self report)
  5. Known thrombocytopenia or coagulation disorder
  6. On immunosuppressive medication
  7. Received any blood product since birth
  8. Severe congenital anomaly
  9. Chronic or progressive disease
  10. Seizure disorder
  11. History of invasive Pneumococcal, meningococcal, or Haemophilus influenzae diseases
  12. Moderate or severe acute infection (temporary exclusion); Minor illnesses such as an uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection, localized skin infections, or mild diarrhea will not be an exclusion criterion
  Contacts and Locations
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00170612

Locations
Fiji
Colonial War Memorial Hospital
Suva, Fiji
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Melbourne
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Fiona M Russell, FRACP University of Melbourne
  More Information

No publications provided by University of Melbourne

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

Responsible Party: Fiona Russell, University of Melbourne
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00170612     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 03-042, FNRERC Reference # 2002-001
Study First Received: September 13, 2005
Last Updated: October 20, 2008
Health Authority: Fiji: Ministry of Health

Keywords provided by University of Melbourne:
Pneumococcal infections
Fiji
infants
vaccine

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Pneumococcal Infections
Streptococcal Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 17, 2014