A One Year Clinical Trial Assessing the Usefulness and Safety of Inhaled Insulin in Diabetics With Asthma

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by:
Pfizer
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00139659
First received: August 29, 2005
Last updated: May 26, 2010
Last verified: October 2009
  Purpose

A One Year Clinical Trial Assessing the Usefulness and Safety of Inhaled Insulin in Diabetics with Asthma


Condition Intervention Phase
Asthma
Diabetes Mellitus
Drug: Inhaled Insulin
Drug: Subcutaneous Insulin
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Human Insulin (Exubera) Compared With Subcutaneous Human Insulin in the Therapy of Adult Subjects With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Asthma: A One-Year, Multicenter, Randomized, Outpatient, Open-Label, Parallel-Group Comparative Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Pfizer:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Annualized Rate of Change for Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Weeks -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 26, 39, and 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Annualized rates of change (slope throughout time from baseline to end of study[visit]) for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (liters per year [L/yr]) measured 30 minutes following the administration of albuterol.

  • Annualized Rate of Change for Hemoglobin-adjusted Carbon Monoxide Diffusion Capacity (DLco) [ Time Frame: Weeks -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 26, 39, and 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Annualized rates of change (slope throughout time from baseline to end of study[visit]) for hemoglobin-adjusted carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLco)in milliliters per minute/millimeters of mercury/year (ml/min/mmHg/yr) measured 30 minutes following the administration of albuterol.

  • Change From Baseline in Post-Bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Baseline through Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Change from Baseline at each visit in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). FEV1 was measured in liters (L) 30 minutes following the administration of albuterol. Change from baseline: mean FEV1 (L) at observation minus baseline value.

  • Change From Baseline in Post-Bronchodilator Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) measured in milliters/minutes/millimeters of mercury (mL/min/mmHg) 30 minutes following the administration of albuterol. Change from Baseline: mean DLco (mL/min/mmHg) at observation minus baseline value.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Change From Baseline in Pre-Bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change from Baseline in Pre-Bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) at each visit. FEV1 was measured in liters (L) before the administration of albuterol. Change from baseline: mean FEV1 (L) at observation minus mean baseline value.

  • Change From Baseline in Pre-Bronchodilator Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change From Baseline in Pre-Bronchodilator Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) measured in milliters/minutes/millimeters of mercury (mL/min/mmHg): change = DLco at observation minus DLco at Baseline.

  • Change From Baseline in Pre-Insulin Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 9, Week 51, Week 51 Last Observation Carried Forward ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change from Baseline in Pre-Insulin Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) measured in liters (L): change = FEV1 at observation minus FEV1 at Baseline.

  • Change From Baseline in Pre-Insulin Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 9, Week 51, Week 51 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change From Baseline in Pre-Insulin Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) measured in milliters/minutes/millimeters of mercury (mL/min/mmHg): change = DLco at observation minus DLco at Baseline.

  • Change From Baseline in Post-bronchodilator Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change from baseline in Post-bronchodilator Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) measured in liters (L) 30 minutes following the administration of albuterol: change = FVC at observation minus FVC at Baseline.

  • Bronchodilator Responsiveness as Determined by the Change in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) Pre-albuterol and 30 Minutes Post-albuterol [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Responsiveness was the percent change from the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) value before bronchodilator use to the FEV1 value 30 minutes after bronchodilator use, operationally defined as [(post-bronchodilator FEV1 minus pre-bronchodilator FEV1 divided by pre-bronchodilator FEV1] multiplied by 100.

  • Percent Predicted and Percent Change From Baseline in Post-Bronchdilator Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Percent predicted change from Baseline in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measured in liters (L): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference standard. Percent change from Baseline in post-bronchdilator FEV1 measured in liters (L): (observed value minus Baseline value) divided by Baseline value *100%.

  • Change From Baseline in Insulin Dose Responsiveness for Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) Measured 10 and 60 Minutes After the First Daily Dose of Insulin [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 9, Week 51 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change from Baseline in Insulin Dose Responsiveness for Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) measured 10 and 60 minutes after the first daily dose of insulin. Insulin dose responsiveness = the difference between FEV1 value following a dose of insulin and FEV1 value before a dose of insulin, operationally defined as the post dose FEV1 value minus predose FEV1 value.

  • Percent Predicted and Percent Change From Baseline in 10 Minute and 60 Minute Post-Insulin Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 9, Week 51, Week 51 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Percent predicted change from Baseline in 10 Minute and 60 Minute post-insulin forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measured in liters (L): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference standard. Percent change from Baseline in FEV1 measured in liters (L) 10 and 60 Minutes post-insulin. Percent change = (value at observation minus Baseline value) divided by Baseline value *100%.

  • Change From Baseline in Insulin Dose Responsiveness for Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) Measured 10 and 60 Minutes After the First Daily Dose of Insulin [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 9, Week 51 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLco) dose responsivness 10 and 60 minutes after insulin. DLco dose-responsiveness to insulin was defined as the difference between the DLco value following a dose of insulin and DLco value before a dose of insulin, operationally defined as the post-dose DLco value minus pre-dose DLco value.

  • Methacholine Challenge [ Time Frame: 1 to 2 days following Weeks -3 and -1 visits, and at Week 11, Week 50, and Week 52 (+5) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Methacholine Challange: performed on a subset of subjects using the 5-breath dosimeter method. Subjects were challenged with ascending doses of nebulized methacholine; dosing schedule: 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 32.0 milligrams per milliliter (mg/ml) administered in 5-minute intervals. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was measured 1-3 minutes after each inhalation of methacholine solution. Testing continued until highest FEV1 decreased by ≥20% from the challenge (post-diluent) reference, or until completion all doses.

  • Mean Weekly Morning and Evening Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Week -3 through Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Subjects measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) twice daily and entered the results in an electronic diary. Daily data were used to calculate the mean PEFR and FEV1 for each week (observed weekly mean and change from baseline in weekly mean). For each subject, the mean weekly morning (and evening) PEFR and FEV1 was defined as the sum of the daily morning (and evening) PEFR (and FEV1) measurements during the week divided by the number of non-missing PEFR (and FEV1) measurements during the week.

  • Mean Weekly Number of Puffs of Albuterol Used (Rescue Medication) [ Time Frame: Daily: Baseline to end of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    All subjects used an electronic symptom diary to record their daily use of short-acting bronchodilators. Subjects recorded the sum of their short-acting bronchodilator use (puffs of albuterol) daily, immediately upon arising, and again in the evening or before bed.

  • Number of Subjects With Step-up and Step-down Changes in Classification of Asthma Severity by Medication Usage [ Time Frame: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 9, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 54, Week 58 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    All asthma medication changes during the study were classified as step-up or step-down according to treatment guidelines. Step 1: Intermittant Asthma; Step 2: Mild Persistent Asthma; Step 3: Moderate Persistent Asthma; Step 4: Severe Persistent Asthma. The number of subjects in each step classification of asthma severity were provided at each assessment timepoint for each treatment group, with a shift table indicating the number of subjects moving from each step classification at each timepoint.

  • Step Classification of Asthma Severity by Medication Usage [ Time Frame: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 9, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 54, Week 58 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Step classification of asthma severity by medication usage. Subjects were classified at each visit according to the medication used on the day of the particular time-point; Step 1: intermittent asthma, Step 2: mild persistent asthma, Step 3: moderate persistent asthma, Step 4: severe persistent asthma. The number (%) of subjects in each step classification were provided at each assessment timepoint with a shift table indicating the number (%) of subjects moving from each step classification at each time-point.

  • Mean Weekly Asthma Symptom Scores [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Mean weekly asthma symptom scores: subjects recorded their asthma symptom scores in an electronic symptom diary twice daily throughout the study, immediately upon awakening (5-10 AM) and in the evening or at bedtime (7-12 PM). Questions included extent of albuterol use, symptoms of wheezing, coughing, activity limitations and sleep; scale 0 (none/fine) to 3 (severe/ continuous/bad night).

  • Incidence of Non-severe Asthma Exacerbations [ Time Frame: 0 to 1 week to > 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Non-severe asthma exacerbation = one of the following: any home monitored morning (4:45 am - 10:15 am) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <80% of the morning baseline for 2 or more consecutive days; or home monitored FEV1 <60% of Baseline at any time. Percent of Baseline = 100*(daily FEV1)/Baseline weekly FEV1. Subject-months=elapsed number of months a subject was in the study in each time interval. Crude event rate = total events divided by subject-months.

  • Incidence of Severe Asthma Exacerbations [ Time Frame: 0 to 1 Week to > 12 Months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Severe asthma exacerbation was defined as one of the following: subject received oral (systemic) corticosteriods for the treatment of asthma; or subject had an unscheduled visit to a physician, emergency room, or hospital for the treatment of asthma. Subject-months=elapsed number of months a subject was in the study in each time interval. Crude event rate = total events divided by subject-months * 100.

  • Number of Systemic Corticosteroid Rescues [ Time Frame: Baseline through Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of subjects who used a systemic corticosteroid at any time during the study, and the total number of systemic corticosteroid rescues. New rescue event = >=2 consecutive days between the end of one event and the start of another event.

  • Asthma Control as Measured by the Asthma Control Questionnaire© [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 4, 12, 26, 39, 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Asthma Control Questionnaire©: 6 self-administered questions that assess asthma control over the past week covering nocturnal waking, morning symptoms, activity limitations, shortness of breath, wheezing, and short-acting bronchodilator use; 7-point ordinal rating scale from 0 (good control) to 6 (poor control). A seventh question was completed by a health professional on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted using a one-week recall period; scale: 0 (>95% predicted) to 6 (<50% predicted). Overall score = mean of questions 1 - 7.

  • Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) [ Time Frame: run-in period ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Total score = the sum of the numeric grades from the three dyspnea index questions. Functional Impairment rating scale: Grade 4 (no impairment) to Grade 0 (very severe impairment); Magnitude of Task rating scale: Grade 4 (extraordinary) to Grade 0 (no task); and Magnitude of Effort rating scale: Grade 4 (extraordinary) to grade 0 (no effort).

  • Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI): Change in Total Score [ Time Frame: Week 4, Week 12, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Transition Dyspnea Index total score = sum of the numeric grades from the three dyspnea index questions: Change in Functional Impairment, Change in Magnitude of Task, and Change in Magnitude of Effort. Rating scale: -3 (major deterioration), -2 (moderate deterioration), -1 (minor deterioration, 0 (no change), +1 (minor improvement), +2 (moderate improvement), +3 (major improvement).

  • Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 6, Week 12, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c): observed mean values at Baseline and each observation, and change from Baseline. Change from Baseline = mean HbA1c at observation minus mean HbA1c at Baseline.

  • Fasting Plasma Glucose [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 6, Week 12, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Fasting plasma glucose (milligrams per deciliter [mg/dL]) at Baseline, and change from Baseline. Change from baseline: mean of value of fasting plasma glucose in mg/dL at observation minus baseline value.

  • Body Weight: Mean Baseline and Change From Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 9, Week 11, Week 12, Week 18, Wek 26, Week 39, Week 50, Week 51, Week 52, Week 52 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Body weight: mean Baseline and change from Baseline in kilograms (kg). Change from baseline = mean body weight in kilograms (kg) at observation minus baseline value.

  • Total Daily Long-Acting Insulin Dose (Unadjusted for Body Weight) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 9, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Total Daily Long-Acting Insulin Dose Unadjusted for Body Weight: long-acting insulin included Insulin NPH, Ultralente, and Insulin Glargine for both groups.

    Inhaled Insulin reported in mg. Subcutaneous Insulin reported in units.


  • Total Daily Long-Acting Insulin Dose Adjusted for Body Weight [ Time Frame: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 9, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Total daily dose of long-acting insulin adjusted for body weight (units per kilogram [kg]). Long-acting insulin included Insulin NPH, Ultralente, and Insulin Glargine for both groups.

    Inhaled Insulin reported in mg/kg. Subcutaneous Insulin reported in units/kg.


  • Total Daily Short-Acting Insulin Dose (Unadjusted for Body Weight) [ Time Frame: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 9, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Average Total Daily Insulin Dose: short-acting insulin (milligrams [mg]). Short-acting insulin (mg) for the Inhaled Insulin group was Inhaled Insulin. Short-acting insulin (unit) for the Subcutaneous Insulin group included Insulin Lispro, Insulin Aspart, and Regular Insulin.

  • Total Daily Short-Acting Insulin Dose Adjusted for Body Weight [ Time Frame: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Week 4, Week 6, Week 9, Week 12, Week 18, Week 26, Week 39, Week 52 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Total Daily Short-Acting Insulin Dose adjusted for body weight (units divided by kg). Short-acting insulin (mg) for the Inhaled Insulin group was Inhaled Insulin. Short-acting insulin (unit) for the Subcutaneous Insulin group included Insulin Lispro, Insulin Aspart, and Regular Insulin.

  • Lipids: Median Change From Baseline to Last Observation [ Time Frame: Baseline to Last Observation ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Lipids: median changes (milligrams per deciliter [mg/dL]) from Baseline median to last observation in cholesterol (random), triglycerides (random), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Normalized data was used in the computations. Last observation = last observation while on study drug or during the lag. Measures of dispersion for median changes in lipids were not determined.

  • Hypoglycemic Event Rates [ Time Frame: 0 to 1 month to 11 to 12 months, and Overall ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    A Hypoglycemic event was identified by characteristic symptoms of hypoglycemia with no blood glucose check with prompt resolution with food intake, subcutaneous glucagon, or intravenouus glucose; characteristic symptoms with blood glucose of 59 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) (3.2 mmol/L) or less with blood glucose check; or any glucose measurement of 49 mg/dL (2.7 mmol/L) or less, with or without symptoms. Crude event rate = total events divided by subject months. Subject months = elapsed number of months a subject was in the study in each time interval.

  • Severe Hypoglycemic Event Rates [ Time Frame: 0 to 1 month to 11 to 12 months, and Overall ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Severe hypoglycemic event = all 3 of the following criteria were met: subject unable to treat self, exhbited at least 1 neurological symptom (memory loss, confusion, uncontrollable behavior, irrational behavior, unusual difficulty in awakening, suspected seizure, loss of consciousness); blood glucose measurement was ≤ 49 mg/dL, or not measured but clinical manifestations reversed by oral carbohydrates, subcutaneous glucagon, or i.v. glucose. Crude event rate = number of events divided by 100 subject-months. Subject months = elapsed number of months subject was in study in each time interval.


Enrollment: 288
Study Start Date: January 2003
Study Completion Date: October 2008
Primary Completion Date: October 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Inhaled Insulin Drug: Inhaled Insulin
Inhaled insulin with dose adjusted according to premeal blood glucose plus oral antidiabetic agent(s) and/or either once or twice daily doses of either Ultralente or NPH insulin, or a single bedtime dose of insulin glargine.
Active Comparator: Subcutaneous Insulin Drug: Subcutaneous Insulin
Subcutaneous short-acting insulin with dose adjusted according to premeal blood glucose plus oral antidiabetic agent(s) and/or either once or twice daily doses of either Ultralente or neutral protamine hagedorn (NPH) insulin, or a single bedtime dose of insulin glargine.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 77 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 or Type 2) currently controlled with injected insulin
  • Mild intermittent or mild to moderate persistent asthma

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Poorly controlled, unstable or steroid-dependent asthma, insulin pump therapy, smoking
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00139659

  Show 102 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Pfizer
Investigators
Study Director: Pfizer CT.gov Call Center Pfizer
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided

Responsible Party: Director, Clinical Trial Disclosure Group, Pfizer, Inc.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00139659     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: A2171028
Study First Received: August 29, 2005
Results First Received: October 21, 2009
Last Updated: May 26, 2010
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Asthma
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Bronchial Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity, Immediate
Hypersensitivity
Immune System Diseases
Insulin, Globin Zinc
Insulin
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 19, 2014