Eculizumab to Treat Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the experimental drug eculizumab for treating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a disorder that can cause premature destruction of red blood cells. PNH may result in anemia requiring blood transfusions. Patients may be at high risk of life-threatening blood clots in their veins and may have urine discoloration, stomach pain, difficulty swallowing, tiredness, and poor quality of life. Men may have problems getting or maintaining an erection. Eculizumab is a monoclonal antibody that may improve the survival of red blood cells in patients with PNH.
Patients 18 years of age and older who have been diagnosed with PNH for more than 6 months, who have active disease, and who require blood transfusions may be eligible for this study. Each candidate is screened with a physical examination, electrocardiogram, blood and urine tests, and a questionnaire for information on how PNH affects the patient physically, socially, emotionally, and functionally.
Participants receive infusions of eculizumab through a needle in a vein once a week for five doses and then every two weeks for another 24 doses. All patients are vaccinated against Neisseria meningitides, a bacteria that can cause symptoms, possibly including life-threatening meningitis, in susceptible people, including people who take eculizumab.
At every treatment visit, patients update their health status, transfusion record, and medication use; review their laboratory results from the preceding visit; have vital signs measured; and provide a blood sample for laboratory tests. At selected visits, they also provide a urine sample, have a repeat electrocardiogram, and complete a questionnaire. At the final treatment visit, participants have a complete physical examination, in addition to the routine procedures.
|Study Design:||Primary Purpose: Treatment|
|Official Title:||SHEPHERD: Safety in Hemolytic PNH Patients Treated With Eculizumab: A Multi-Center Open-Label Research Design|
|Study Start Date:||August 2005|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||June 2007|
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal disorder of the hematopoietic stem cell characterized by intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, anemia, and thrombosis. The clinical features of PNH result from the lack of one or more of GPI-linked proteins that serve to protect cells from autologous complement mediated attack. Two such proteins, CD55 (decay accelerating factor) and CD59 (reactive lysis inhibitor) have been shown to be absent from PNH erythrocytes and platelets as well as other cell types.
Evidence strongly suggests that lack of the terminal complement inhibitor CD59 is responsible for the sensitivity of PNH erythrocytes and platelets to the effects of autologous complement. Since the pathogenesis of PNH is due to the inability of PNH red cells and platelets to inhibit the activation of terminal complement, it is logical to hypothesize that a terminal complement inhibitor could effectively stop the intravascular hemolysis, obviate or lessen the need for transfusions, and possibly decrease the propensity of life threatening thrombosis. Eculizumab (h5G1.1-mAb) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that like CD59 inhibits terminal complement.
This study is an open label, multi-center study of eculizumab, administered intravenously for 52 weeks to approximately 85 PNH patients. The study is designed to evaluate the safety of eculizumab in transfusion dependent patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and to determine if the administration of this terminal complement inhibitor could provide a safe and effective substitute for CD59 function.
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|