Improving Immunosuppressive Treatment for Patients With Severe Aplastic Anemia

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00061360
First received: May 23, 2003
Last updated: June 18, 2014
Last verified: September 2013
  Purpose

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening bone marrow failure disorder characterized by pancytopenia and a hypocellular bone marrow. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and immunosuppressive treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA) have dramatically changed the natural course of this illness, with 5 year survival of 75% in patients undergoing either treatment. Since most patients are not suitable candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) due to advanced age or lack of a histocompatible sibling, efforts at NHLBI have focused on improving immunosuppression treatment in order to improve response rates, survival, and to decrease relapse.

In our experience of 122 patients treated at NHLBI with the combination of ATG and cyclosporine, one quarter to one third did not respond; about 50% of responders relapsed; and 5 year survival was correlated with the robustness in blood cell count improvement at 3 months (reticulocyte or platelet count greater than or equal to 50,000 /uL). Why some patients do not respond initially while others relapse is unclear. Autoreactive T cells may be resistant to the effect of ATG/CsA (nonresponders), while in others residual autoreactive T cells expand post-treatment leading to hematopoietic stem cell destruction and recurrent pancytopenia (relapse). Therefore, novel immunosuppressive regimens to increase response rates and hematologic recovery at 3 months and to decrease relapse rates are needed. An ongoing NHLBI trial, which is close to completing accrual, has added mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for a total of 18 months to standard ATG + CsA in an attempt to reduce the relapse rate after cyclosporine is discontinued. Preliminary results have been disappointing, with no marked reduction in relapse among patients who received MMF.

Sirolimus (rapamycin, Rapamune , RAPA) is a novel immunosuppressive agent, which acts synergistically with cyclosporine by blocking T cell activation through CsA-resistant pathways. The potentiation of the combination of CsA-RAPA has been established in vitro and in the clinical setting, mainly in islet cell and solid organ transplantation. The significant increase in response rate seen with the addition of CsA to ATG indicated that an inhibitory effect on T lymphocytes is important in blocking autoreactive T cells in aplastic anemia. The combination of CsA-RAPA may further block activated autoreactive T cells and therefore lead to improved response rates (and survival) and decreased relapse rates.

This prospective randomized phase II study will investigate two different immunosuppressive regimens in patients with severe aplastic anemia who have not received prior immunosuppressive therapy. One arm will receive ATG + CsA in addition to sirolimus for 6 months, and the second arm will receive standard ATG + CsA for 6 months followed by a slow taper of CsA with a 25% dose reduction every 3 months for the subsequent 18 months. This trial will determine the effectiveness of sirolimus in patients with aplastic anemia as well as the role of a cyclosporine taper in preventing relapses. Primary endpoint will be no longer meeting criteria for severe aplastic anemia while secondary endpoints are relapse, robustness of hematologic recovery at 3 months, survival, clonal evolution to PNH, myelodysplasia and acute leukemia.

10/11/2005. The Sirolimus (Rapamune) arm of the trial was stopped for lack of efficacy. The study will continue as a single arm study to establish if slow taper of CsA prevents relapse rates after initial standard treatment with ATG followed by CsA for six months....


Condition Intervention Phase
Aplastic Anemia
Drug: Sirolimus (Rapamune)
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized Trial of a Novel Immunosuppressive Combination of ATG, CsA and Sirolimus (Rapamune) vs a Slow Taper Cyclosporine Regimen in Subjects With Severe Aplastic Anemia

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Response rate of new combined treatement of ATG, CsA and sirolimus versus standard ATG/CsA. [ Time Frame: 6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 77
Study Start Date: May 2003
Estimated Study Completion Date: November 2014
Primary Completion Date: May 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Intervention Details:
    Drug: Sirolimus (Rapamune)
    N/A
Detailed Description:

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening bone marrow failure disorder characterized by pancytopenia and a hypocellular bone marrow. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and immunosuppressive treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA) have dramatically changed the natural course of this illness, with 5 year survival of 75% in patients undergoing either treatment. Since most patients are not suitable candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) due to advanced age or lack of a histocompatible sibling, efforts at NHLBI have focused on improving immunosuppression treatment in order to improve response rates, survival, and to decrease relapse.

In our experience of 122 patients treated at NHLBI with the combination of ATG and cyclosporine, one quarter to one third did not respond; about 50% of responders relapsed; and 5 year survival was correlated with the robustness in blood cell count improvement at 3 months (reticulocyte or platelet count greater than or equal to 50,000 /uL). Why some patients do not respond initially while others relapse is unclear. Autoreactive T cells may be resistant to the effect of ATG/CsA (nonresponders), while in others residual autoreactive T cells expand post-treatment leading to hematopoietic stem cell destruction and recurrent pancytopenia (relapse). Therefore, novel immunosuppressive regimens to increase response rates and hematologic recovery at 3 months and to decrease relapse rates are needed. An ongoing NHLBI trial, which is close to completing accrual, has added mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for a total of 18 months to standard ATG + CsA in an attempt to reduce the relapse rate after cyclosporine is discontinued. Preliminary results have been disappointing, with no marked reduction in relapse among patients who received MMF.

Sirolimus (rapamycin, Rapamune , RAPA) is a novel immunosuppressive agent, which acts synergistically with cyclosporine by blocking T cell activation through CsA-resistant pathways. The potentiation of the combination of CsA-RAPA has been established in vitro and in the clinical setting, mainly in islet cell and solid organ transplantation. The significant increase in response rate seen with the addition of CsA to ATG indicated that an inhibitory effect on T lymphocytes is important in blocking autoreactive T cells in aplastic anemia. The combination of CsA-RAPA may further block activated autoreactive T cells and therefore lead to improved response rates (and survival) and decreased relapse rates.

This prospective randomized phase II study will investigate two different immunosuppressive regimens in patients with severe aplastic anemia who have not received prior immunosuppressive therapy. One arm will receive ATG + CsA in addition to sirolimus for 6 months, and the second arm will receive standard ATG + CsA for 6 months followed by a slow taper of CsA with a 25% dose reduction every 3 months for the subsequent 18 months. This trial will determine the effectiveness of sirolimus in patients with aplastic anemia as well as the role of a cyclosporine taper in preventing relapses. Primary endpoint will be no longer meeting criteria for severe aplastic anemia while secondary endpoints are relapse, robustness of hematologic recovery at 3 months, survival, clonal evolution to PNH, myelodysplasia and acute leukemia.

10/11/2005. The Sirolimus (Rapamune) arm of the trial was stopped for lack of efficacy. The study will continue as a single arm study to establish if slow taper of CsA prevents relapse rates after initial standard treatment with ATG followed by CsA for six months.

3/2/2006. The protocol was closed to new accrual.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA:

Severe aplastic anemia confirmed at NIH by:

  1. . Bone marrow cellularity less than 30% (excluding lymphocytes)
  2. . At least two of the following: Absolute neutrophil count less than 500/ uL; Platelet count less than 20,000/ uL; Absolute reticulocyte count less than 60,000/ uL

Age greater than or equal to 2 years old

Weight greater than 12 kg

EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

Serum creatinine greater than 2.5 mg/dL

Underlying carcinoma (except local cervical, basal cell, squamous cell)

Prior immunosuppressive therapy with ATG, ALG, or high dose cyclophospamide.

Current pregnancy or lactation or unwillingness to take oral contraceptives or use an effective method of birth control.

Diagnosis of Fanconi anemia or other congenital bone marrow failure syndromes

Evidence of a clonal disorder on cytogenetics. Patients with super severe neutropenia (ANC less than 200/uL) will not be excluded if results of cytogenetics are not available or pending.

Underlying immunodeficiency state including seropositivity for HIV

Inability to understand the investigational nature of the study or give informed consent

Moribund status or concurrent hepatic, renal, cardiac, neurologic, pulmonary, infectious, or metabolic disease of such severity that it would preclude the patient s ability to tolerate protocol therapy, or that death within 7-10 days is likely.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00061360

Locations
United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Neal S Young, M.D. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00061360     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 030193, 03-H-0193
Study First Received: May 23, 2003
Last Updated: June 18, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Bone Marrow Failure
Cyclosporine
Anti Thymocyte Globulin
Severe Aplastic Anemia

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Anemia
Anemia, Aplastic
Hematologic Diseases
Bone Marrow Diseases
Cyclosporins
Cyclosporine
Immunosuppressive Agents
Sirolimus
Everolimus
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antifungal Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Dermatologic Agents
Antirheumatic Agents
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Antineoplastic Agents
Anti-Bacterial Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 22, 2014