Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, and External-Beam Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00052559
First received: January 24, 2003
Last updated: June 4, 2013
Last verified: June 2013
  Purpose

This phase I trial is studying the side effects and best dose of bevacizumab when given together with fluorouracil and external-beam radiation therapy in treating patients with stage II or stage III rectal cancer. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block cancer growth in different ways. Some block the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread. Others find cancer cells and help kill them or deliver cancer-killing substances to them. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. Combining monoclonal antibody therapy with chemotherapy and radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells.


Condition Intervention Phase
Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum
Stage II Rectal Cancer
Stage III Rectal Cancer
Biological: bevacizumab
Drug: fluorouracil
Radiation: external beam radiation therapy
Procedure: therapeutic conventional surgery
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I Study Of The Antiangiogenic Agent Bevacizumab In Combination With 5-Fluourouracil And External Beam Radiation Therapy In Rectal Cancer

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Maximum tolerated dose of bevacizumab when administered concurrently with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with cT3 and T4 rectal cancer prior to surgery [ Time Frame: 29 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Pathological response rate after preoperative bevacizumab, 5-FU, EBRT, and surgery [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Progression-free survival [ Time Frame: From protocol entry until documented progression of disease or death from any cause, assessed up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The progression-free survival curve will be estimated using the Kaplan-Meier methods.

  • Local control [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Overall survival [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 32
Study Start Date: August 2002
Primary Completion Date: April 2003 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Treatment (bevacizumab, fluorouracil, radiation therapy)

Patients receive bevacizumab IV over 30-90 minutes on day 1 (courses 1-4). Beginning with course 2, patients also receive fluorouracil IV continuously on days 1-14 and undergo external beam radiotherapy on days 1-5 and 8-12. Treatment repeats every 2 weeks for 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Patients undergo surgery 7 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy.

Cohorts of 6 patients receive escalating doses of bevacizumab until the MTD is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which at least 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity. Once the MTD is determined, 20 additional patients are treated at the MTD.

Biological: bevacizumab
Given IV
Other Names:
  • anti-VEGF humanized monoclonal antibody
  • anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody
  • Avastin
  • rhuMAb VEGF
Drug: fluorouracil
Given IV
Other Names:
  • 5-fluorouracil
  • 5-Fluracil
  • 5-FU
Radiation: external beam radiation therapy
Undergo external beam radiation therapy
Other Name: EBRT
Procedure: therapeutic conventional surgery
Undergo surgery
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Correlative studies

Detailed Description:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) neutralizing antibody, bevacizumab, when administered concurrently with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 rectal cancer prior to surgery.

II. To obtain preliminary data of the pathological response rate after preoperative therapy.

III. To obtain preliminary data regarding progression free survival, local control, and overall survival.

IV. To obtain preliminary data of the changes in the angiogenic profile of rectal cancer induced by this therapy.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter, dose-escalation study of bevacizumab.

Patients receive bevacizumab IV over 30-90 minutes on day 1 (courses 1-4). Beginning with course 2, patients also receive fluorouracil IV continuously on days 1-14 and undergo external beam radiotherapy on days 1-5 and 8-12. Treatment repeats every 2 weeks for 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Patients undergo surgery 7 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy.

Cohorts of 6 patients receive escalating doses of bevacizumab until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which at least 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity. Once the MTD is determined, 20 additional patients are treated at the MTD.

Patients are followed every 3 months for 2 years, every 6 months for 3 years, and then annually for 2 years.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Histologically confirmed primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum that begins within 15 cm of the anal verge as determined by sigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy
  • Clinical T3 or T4 tumors as determined by the following features:

    • Tethered or fixed tumor on physical exam
    • cT3, cT4, or N+ disease must be confirmed by an endorectal ultrasound or surface coil MRI
  • There must be no evidence of metastatic disease as confirmed by physical examination, chest radiograph, and abdominal/pelvic CT scan
  • ECOG performance status 0, 1, 2 (Karnofsky >= 70%)
  • Life expectancy of greater than 2 years
  • Leukocytes >= 3,000/ul
  • Absolute neutrophil count >= 1,500/ul
  • Platelets >= 100,000/ul
  • Total bilirubin within normal institutional limits
  • AST(SGOT)/ALT(SGPT) < 2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal
  • Creatinine within normal institutional limits OR creatinine clearance >= 60 mL/min/1.73 m^2 for patients with creatinine levels above institutional normal
  • The effects of bevacizumab on the developing human fetus are unknown; for this reason and because radiation therapy and 5-FU agents as well as other therapeutic agents used in this trial are known to be teratogenic, women of child-bearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control) prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately
  • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document
  • Patients with no known HIV or HIV risk factors will be eligible for this study without HIV testing

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients with a "concurrently active" second malignancy other than non- melanoma skin cancers or in situ cervical cancer are excluded; patients are not considered to have a "concurrently active" malignancy if they have completed therapy and considered by their physician to be at less than 30% risk of relapse at a minimum of 5 years after all therapy
  • Prior Treatment:

    • No prior treatment for this malignancy
    • No prior history of pelvic irradiation
    • No prior history of 5-FU-based therapy for any malignancy
    • No prior treatment with bevacizumab
    • Patients must not be receiving any other investigational agents
  • History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition bevacizumab or other agents used in study
  • Bevacizumab - Specific exclusion criteria:

    • History or evidence upon physical examination of CNS disease (e.g., primary brain tumor, seizures not controlled with standard medical therapy, any brain metastases, or history of stroke
    • Serious, non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture
    • Clinically significant cardiovascular disease (e.g., uncontrolled hypertension, history of myocardial infarction, unstable angina within 12 months), New York Heart Association (NYHA) Grade II or greater congestive heart failure, serious cardiac arrhythmia requiring medication, or Grade II or greater peripheral vascular disease within 1 year prior to Day 0
    • Major surgical procedure, open biopsy, or significant traumatic injury within 28 days prior to Day 0, or anticipation of need for major surgical procedure during the course of the study; biopsies (other than rectal cancer) within 7 days prior to Day 0; placement of a vascular access device within 7 days prior to Day 0
    • Arterial thromboembolic events within previous 12 months including transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, or clinically significant peripheral vascular disease. Vascular surgery, stenting or angioplasty within previous 12 months; no history of venous thromboembolic events that require continuation of therapeutic dose of anticoagulation
    • Current or recent (within 10 days prior to Day 0) use of full-dose oral or parenteral anticoagulants or thrombolytic agents (except as required to maintain patency of preexisting, permanent indwelling IV catheters; for subjects receiving warfarin, international normalized ratio [INR] of < 1.5; appropriate use of heparin should be discussed with the Medical Monitor)
    • Chronic, daily treatment with aspirin (> 325 mg/day) or nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory medications (of the kind known to inhibit platelet function at doses used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases)
    • Presence of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy
    • Active infection requiring parenteral antibiotics on Day 0
    • Proteinuria at baseline or clinically significant impairment of renal function
    • Subjects unexpectedly discovered to have >= 1+ proteinuria during screening should undergo a 24-hour urine collection, which must be an adequate collection and must demonstrate < 1 gram protein/24 hr to allow participation in the study
  • Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  • Pregnant women are excluded from this study because bevacizumab, radiation therapy, and 5-FU have potential for teratogenic or abortifacient effects; because there is an unknown but potential risk for adverse events in nursing infants secondary to treatment of the mother with bevacizumab, breastfeeding should be discontinued if the mother is treated with bevacizumab; these potential risks may also apply to other agents used in this study
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00052559

Locations
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Christopher Willett Duke University
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00052559     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NCI-2012-02908, 6042-05-7R1, CDR0000258532, U01CA099118, U01CA062490
Study First Received: January 24, 2003
Last Updated: June 4, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Adenocarcinoma
Rectal Neoplasms
Carcinoma
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Colorectal Neoplasms
Intestinal Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Digestive System Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Rectal Diseases
Bevacizumab
Fluorouracil
Antibodies
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Growth Inhibitors
Antineoplastic Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Immunologic Factors
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 18, 2014