Leptin to Treat Lipodystrophy

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00025883
First received: October 27, 2001
Last updated: July 10, 2014
Last verified: June 2014
  Purpose

This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of leptin replacement therapy in patients with lipodystrophy (also called lipoatrophy). Patients have a total or partial loss of fat cells. They also lack the hormone leptin, which is produced by fat cells. The leptin deficiency usually causes high blood lipid (fat) levels and insulin resistance that may lead to diabetes. Patients may have hormone imbalances, fertility problems, large appetite, and liver disease due to fat accumulation.

Patients age greater than or equal to 6 months with significant lipodystrophy may be eligible for this study. Candidates will be screened with a physical examination and blood tests. Participants will be admitted to the NIH Clinical Center for 10 days for the following studies before beginning 12 months of leptin therapy:

  • Insulin tolerance test measures blood sugar levels after intravenous (IV) administration of insulin. Blood samples are collected through the IV tube at various intervals during the 1-hour test.
  • Ultrasound of the liver and, if abnormalities are found, possibly liver biopsies.
  • Fasting blood tests to measure blood count, blood lipids and various hormones and assess liver function.
  • Resting metabolic rate to measure the amount of oxygen breathed at rest in order to calculate how many calories are required to maintain resting body functions.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver and other organs, and of muscle and fat.
  • Pelvic ultrasound in women to detect ovarian cysts.
  • Estimation of body fat measurements of height, weight, waist, hip size, and skin folds over the arms and abdomen to estimate body fat content.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test measures blood sugar and insulin levels. The patient drinks a very sweet drink containing glucose (sugar), after which blood samples are collected through an IV tube in an arm vein at various intervals during the 3-hour test.
  • Intravenous glucose tolerance test measures tissue response to insulin and glucose after glucose injection and insulin infusion. Blood is collected over 3 hours to measure insulin and glucose levels.
  • Appetite level and food intake to measure hunger level and caloric intake. Patients are questioned about their hunger level, given a variety of foods they may choose to eat and questioned again at various intervals about hunger level. On another day, patients are given breakfast (usually a milkshake) and when they want to eat again, the appetite level and caloric intake study is repeated.
  • Hormone function tests the function of three hormones influenced by leptin (corticotropin-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) are assessed. The hormones are injected intravenously and then blood samples are drawn.
  • Questionnaire patients complete a questionnaire about their activities and how they feel.
  • 24-hour urine collections to measure specific hormones, proteins and sugars excreted in the urine.

Additional studies may include blood tests for genetic studies of lipodystrophy, a muscle biopsy to study muscle proteins involved in regulating energy expenditure before and after leptin replacement, and examination of a surgical specimen (if available) to study molecules that may be involved in energy storage and use.

When the above tests are completed, leptin therapy begins. The drug is injected under the skin twice a day for 4 months and then once a day, if feasible. The dose is increased at the 1- and 2-month visits. Follow-up visits at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 months after therapy starts include a physical examination, blood tests and a meeting with a dietitian. At the end of 12 months, all baseline studies described above are repeated. Patients record their symptoms weekly throughout the study. Those with diabetes measure their blood glucose levels daily before each meal and at bedtime.


Condition Intervention Phase
Lipodystrophy
Drug: Metreleptin
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Long-Term Efficacy of Leptin Replacement in Treatment of Lipodystrophy

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Prove efficacy for lipoatrophic patients younger than 14 years of age. [ Time Frame: Every 6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Enrollment: 105
Study Start Date: October 2001
Estimated Study Completion Date: September 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date: September 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Intervention Details:
    Drug: Metreleptin
    N/A
Detailed Description:

Lipoatrophic diabetes is a syndrome characterized by insulin resistance in association with a paucity of adipose tissue. Patients with severe lipoatrophy die prematurely, typically from the complications of diabetes or liver disease. Experiments with lipoatrophic mice suggest that the insulin resistance is caused by the lack of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue normally produces leptin, a hormone that increases insulin action. For the last fourteen years, we have been studying the extent to which leptin deficiency causes diabetes in lipoatrophic patients. In fact, in our initial study [1] we have seen nearly 60% amelioration of fasting glucose, triglycerides and free fatty acid levels and about 2% actual decreases from baseline HbA1c levels with 4 months of leptin replacement therapy. This response has continued to be sustained, as we continue to follow patients that have now received leptin replacement therapy for fourteen years.

This is an open-labeled study. The study monitors the safety and efficacy of recombinant methionyl human leptin (A-100) replacement in children and adults. We are looking at the long-term effects of leptin replacement on extended therapy. In this long-term replacement protocol, we will monitor metabolic control (e.g. glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels) as primary outcome measures. Ancillary studies will evaluate the effect of Metreleptin on other hormonal axes, growth and development and on liver pathology.

We continue to evaluate the efficacy in a broader leptin deficient population of patients with lipodystrophy. Current inclusion criteria in patients greater than or equal to 5 years include female patients with leptin levels < 12 ng/mL and male patients with leptin levels < 8 ng/mL. We continue to seek patients who meet these criteria. In children ages 6 months 5 years, we will use a cut-off leptin level of 6 ng/mL in both genders.

Patients who are greater than or equal to age 5 years will be evaluated every 6 months during the first year of therapy. If no improvements are seen after 6 months of therapy, then the study medication may be increased to 150% of the predicted dose (0.09mg/kg/day for males and girls less than 10 years of age/ 0.12mg/kg/day for females 10 years of age and older) from 6 months to 1 year on therapy. If no improvements are seen after increasing to 150% of the predicted dose, then the study medication will be withdrawn. If the patient shows improvements in his/her metabolic parameters while on leptin, the patient will be invited to continue taking the study medication. The investigators will strive for all patients responding to leptin to bring their metabolic parameters into the normal range. The maximum dose of leptin that will be given is 0.24 mg/kg/day for females 10 and older, and 0.12 mg/kg/day for males and females less than 10 years of age. After the first year of treatment, the patient will be evaluated every 6 months through the second year of treatment, and then the study period will end. After two years of treatment, extending the treatment period on an annual basis will be the decision of the patient, principal investigator and Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS)/AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals (AZ). Leptin is supplied by BMS/AZ, and is currently only available through research studies. Neither the NIH nor BMS/AZ can guarantee that leptin will be available indefinitely and/or after the study ends. However, leptin was recently approved by the FDA on February 25, 2014, for use in patients with generalized lipodystrophy.

All patient referrals for acceptance into the protocol, are initiated by the physician/health care provider.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Months and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA:

All ethnic groups.

Males and females.

  • Age greater than or equal to 6 months.
  • Clinically significant lipodystrophy, identified by the study physician during the physical examination as an absence of fat outside the range of normal variation and/or identified as a disfiguring factor by the patient.

Circulating leptin levels less than 12.0 ng/ml in females and less than 8.0 ng/ml in males as measured by Linco assay on a specimen obtained after an overnight fast. In children ages 6 months 5 years, a circulating leptin level of less than 6 ng/mL will be used. Leptin samples will be run through Millipore Laboratories, who use the Linco Assay, which has been the assay previously used to measure leptin levels throughout this study period.

Presence of at least one of the following metabolic abnormalities:

  1. Presence of diabetes as defined by the 2007 ADA criteria

    1. Fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL, or
    2. 2 hour plasma glucose greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL following a 75 gram (1.75gm/kg) oral glucose load, or
    3. Diabetic symptoms with a random plasma glucose greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl
  2. Fasting insulin greater than 30 micro units/ml.
  3. Fasting hypertriglyceridemia greater than 200 mg/dL or postprandially elevated triglycerides greater than 500 mg/dL when fasting is clinically not indicated (e.g. in infants)

    -Persons with impaired decision-making capacity and who may be unable to provide informed consent may participate in this study per the discretion of the Principal Investigator.

    EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

    Pregnant women, women in their reproductive years who do not use an effective method of birth control, and women currently nursing or lactating within 6 weeks of having completed nursing.

    Exclusions for underlying diseases likely to increase side effects or hinder objective data collection:

    • Known infectious liver disease
    • Known HIV infection
    • Current alcohol or substance abuse
    • Psychiatric disorder impeding competence or compliance
    • Active tuberculosis
    • Use of anorexiogenic drugs
    • Other condition(s) which in the opinion of the clinical investigators would impede completion of the study
    • Subjects who have known hypersensitivity to E. Coli derived proteins.
    • Subjects with acquired lipodystrophy and a hematologic abnormality such as neutropenia and/or lymphadenopathy
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00025883

Locations
United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Phillip Gorden, M.D. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00025883     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 020022, 02-DK-0022
Study First Received: October 27, 2001
Last Updated: July 10, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Lipoatrophic Diabetes
Leptin
Diabetes Mellitus
Hypertriglyceridemia
NASH
Lipodystrophy
Diabetes

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Lipodystrophy
Skin Diseases, Metabolic
Skin Diseases
Lipid Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 01, 2014