Solitary Islet Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Using Steroid Sparing Immunosuppression
This study will test whether a new islet transplant procedure will enable patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus to stop insulin therapy. Islets are cell clusters in the pancreas that contain insulin-producing cells. The new procedure features three important advances, first developed by a group in Edmonton, Canada, over the way islet transplants have traditionally been performed: 1) the islets are transplanted immediately after they are removed from the donor; 2) islets are transplanted from two different donors in order to obtain the number of islets in a normal pancreas; and 3) the anti-rejection drug regimen is designed to reduce the harmful side effects of "conditioning" chemotherapy. (In the standard transplant procedure, patients receive intensive chemotherapy following the transplant. This study will use no radiation and lower-dose chemotherapy.)
Patients between the ages of 18 and 65 with the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus for at least 5 years may be eligible for this study. Candidates will be screened with a medical history and physical examination, blood tests, chest X-ray and tuberculin skin test, electrocardiogram and exercise test for heart function, abdominal ultrasound, psychological evaluation, and an arginine stimulated c-peptide test. The latter test determines if the patient is producing any insulin. Eligibility is restricted to patients who make no insulin at all.
The study has an active phase lasting 15 months and follow-up that continues indefinitely. Patients will receive 10,000 "islet equivalents" per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight. This will likely require two separate transplant procedures from two donors. Before the first surgery, patients will be given anti-rejection (immune suppressing) drugs, including FK506 and rapamycin (orally) and daclizumab (intravenously). The islets will be infused through a tube placed in the portal vein (the large vein that feeds the liver). After surgery, patients will receive insulin intravenously for 24 hours. They will then have an abdominal ultrasound and blood tests to determine liver function. If fewer than 10,000 islets were transplanted, patients will continue insulin treatment, with the dosages adjusted to account for the transplanted islets. They will take Daclizumab every 2 weeks, and FK506 and rapamycin daily. Blood tests to follow how much of these drugs are in the blood stream will be performed daily at first and then weekly after blood levels of these drugs stabilize. They will be given antibiotics to prevent infections. The arginine test will be repeated 2 weeks after the transplant and periodically thereafter. Blood will be drawn weekly to check drug levels, and monthly for other tests. The investigators will track daily insulin requirements, and these will be recorded monthly.
Patients who require a second transplant to achieve the required amount of islets will return for the procedure when a compatible organ is donated. The second procedure will be done as described above. As before, insulin will be infused for 24 hours following surgery. It will then be stopped, however, and will not be resumed unless blood glucose levels reach above 180 milligrams/deciliter. Patients will continue taking FK506 and rapamycin indefinitely. Daclizumab will be given every 2 weeks for 4 doses following the second transplant, and then stopped. Patients will take an antiviral called ganciclovir for 14 weeks and another antibiotic for 1 year following surgery. For the first year after surgery, patients will have frequent blood tests to monitor drug levels and immune function. They will return to NIH for a complete history and physical examination 2 and 3 years after the final islet transplant and will be contacted yearly by phone to ascertain their general health status and whether they remain insulin independent.
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Solitary Islet Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Using Steroid Sparing Immunosuppression|
- Insulin independence one year following the transplant. [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- To estimate the islet cell survival by evaluating: Arginine Stimulated C-Peptide response, Insulin dose, incidence of severe hypoglycemia, monthly monitoring of Hgb A1c. [ Time Frame: Varied depending on variable measured ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
|Study Start Date:||November 2000|
|Primary Completion Date:||June 2002 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
We will test whether pancreatic islets isolated from cadaveric human donor pancreata can be
transplanted into the portal vein of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in such a way so as to achieve insulin independence for the recipient. The protocol will employ a defined islet isolation procedure, percutaneous islet infusion into the recipient s portal vein via an intra-portal catheter, tight glycemic control during the peri-transplant period, and a novel immunosuppressive protocol that avoids glucocorticoids. Up to 20 patients between the ages of 18 and 65 who have been diagnosed with T1DM for at least five years and who have no detectable endogenous insulin producing capacity will be enrolled. Since the study calls for at least 10,000 islet equivalents (IEQs) per kilogram recipient body weight to be transplanted, and since a typical human pancreas yields approximately 2.0 to 4.0 times 105 IEQs, most protocol enrollees will require islets isolated from two different donors. Islets will be transplanted shortly after isolation, and since human donor pancreata are available at unpredictable times, the timing of the islet transplant procedure will also be unpredictable. The study s primary end-point will be insulin independence at one year following the transplantation of at least 10,000 IEQs per kilogram recipient body weight. Secondary endpoints will be evidence of partial islet function as reflected by stimulated c-peptide secretion, a Hgb A1c of 7.0% or less, and the absence of severe hypoglycemia. Additional secondary endpoints will be to determine: 1) if any immune parameters are predictive of islet loss, 2) if islet transplantation has any effect on renal function and 3) if the protocol influences fasting lipid profiles.
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Principal Investigator:||Kristina I Rother, M.D.||National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)|