Chemotherapy, Stem Cell Transplantation and Donor and Patient Vaccination for Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ronald Gress, M.D., National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00006184
First received: August 23, 2000
Last updated: March 24, 2014
Last verified: March 2014
  Purpose

Background:

The mainstay of therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients remains systemic chemotherapy. Although partial remissions of up to 60% are obtained with conventional regimens, multiple myeloma is essentially an incurable disease with a median survival of approximately 30 months.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) results in a high percentage of complete remissions, but it can be associated with significant treatment-related mortality, which has been primarily attributed to conventional myeloablative transplant regimens.

Recent clinical studies have shown that highly immunosuppressive yet non-myeloablative doses of fludarabine-based chemotherapy can result in alloengraftment. Even with a reduction in treatment related mortality, success with allogeneic SCT is limited by a significant risk of relapse.

Donor immunization with myeloma Id in the setting of a non-myeloablative allogeneic SCT may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Objectives:

Primary Objectives:

To induce cellular and humoral immunity in allogeneic stem cell donors and recipients against the unique idiotype expressed by the recipient's myeloma.

To determine whether antigen-specific immunity, induced in the stem cell donor, can be passively transferred to the allogeneic SCT recipient in the setting of a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen.

Secondary Objectives:

To evaluate the effect of the Fludarabine-(etoposide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, cyclophosphamide) EPOCH regimen on host T cell depletion and myeloid depletion prior to allogeneic SCT.

To determine the efficacy of a novel conventional chemotherapy regimen (Fludarabine-EPOCH) in the setting multiple myeloma.

To determine the treatment-related morbidity and mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen in multiple myeloma.

To determine if the re-vaccination of allogeneic stem cell donors with the unique idiotype expressed by the recipient's myeloma will enhance cellular and humoral immunity to patient specific-idiotype prior to lymphocyte donation for the treatment of patients with recurrent or progressive disease after transplantation.

Eligibility:

Patients 18-75 years of age with Immunoglobulin G (IgG) or Immunoglobulin A (IgA) multiple myeloma.

Patients must have achieved at least a partial remission following initial conventional chemotherapy regimen or after autologous stem cell transplantation.

Consenting first degree relative matched at 6/6 or 5/6 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens.

Design:

Phase 2 trial using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen to reduce treatment-related toxicity.

Recipient will undergo a plasmapheresis to obtain starting material for the isolation of idiotype

protein. Donors would be immunized with an Id vaccine prepared from the patient.

Prior to transplantation patients would receive a conventional chemotherapy regimen which contains agents active in myeloma and is T cell depleting. The allogeneic SCT would be performed with a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. The stem cell source would be blood mobilized with filgrastim. Recipients will be immunized with the Id vaccine following transplantation.


Condition Intervention Phase
Multiple Myeloma
Drug: Myeloma Immunoglobulin Idiotype Vaccine
Drug: Bortezomib
Drug: Cyclophosphamide
Drug: Cyclosporine
Drug: Doxorubicin hydrochloride
Drug: Etoposide
Drug: Fludarabine phosphate
Drug: Prednisone
Drug: Vincristine Sulfate
Drug: Methotrexate
Biological: GMCSF (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor)
Biological: GCSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor)
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Active Immunization of Sibling Stem Cell Transplant Donors Against Purified Myeloma Protein of the Stem Cell Recipient With Multiple Myeloma in the Setting of Non-Myeloablative, HLA-Matched Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Immune Response [ Time Frame: 105 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Immune cell depletion is defined as immunosuppression of participants T cells prior to transplant measured by cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts (i.e. cells) > 50 cells per ul.Immune T-cell depletion helps to reduce the ability to reject allogeneic cells in participants and is required for engraftment. Engraftment is the body's ability to accept donor cells.

  • Number of Participants With Adverse Events [ Time Frame: 9 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Here is the number of participants with adverse events. For a detailed list of adverse events see the adverse event module.


Enrollment: 20
Study Start Date: August 2000
Study Completion Date: July 2013
Primary Completion Date: July 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Recipient - Chemotherapy Group
Induction chemotherapy with fludarabine, etoposide, doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) followed by transplant preparative regimen chemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mesna, cyclosporine, and methotrexate, followed by stem cell infusion and immunization.
Drug: Bortezomib
Induction chemotherapy: 1.3 mg/m^2 bolus intravenous injection twice weekly for 2 weeks (days 1, 4, 8, 11) followed by 10 day rest period (day 12-21)
Other Names:
  • Velcade
  • PS341
Drug: Cyclophosphamide
Induction chemotherapy: 600 mg/m^2 day 4 Transplant: 1200 mg/m^2 intravenous x 4 days (days -6, -5, -4, -3)
Other Names:
  • Cytoxan
  • CTX
Drug: Cyclosporine
Transplant: 2 mg/kg intravenous every 12 hours continuous intravenous or by mouth (PO) until day + 180
Other Names:
  • Sandimmune
  • Cyclosporin A
Drug: Doxorubicin hydrochloride
Induction chemotherapy: 10 mg/m^2 day continuous intravenous (CIV) days 1-3
Drug: Etoposide
Induction chemotherapy: 50 mg/m^2 day continuous intravenous days 1-3
Other Name: Vepesid
Drug: Fludarabine phosphate
Induction chemotherapy: 25 mg/m^2 day intravenous days 1-3 Transplant: 30 mg/m^2 day x 4 days (days -6, -5, -4, -3 )
Other Name: Fludara
Drug: Prednisone
60 mg/m^2 day 1-4
Other Name: Deltasone
Drug: Vincristine Sulfate
Induction chemotherapy: 0.5 mg/m^2 day continuous intravenous days 1-3
Other Name: Vincristine sulfate
Drug: Methotrexate
Transplant: 5 mg/m^2 intravenous on days +1, +3, +6, +11
Other Names:
  • MTX
  • Methotrexate sodium
Biological: GCSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor)
10 mcg/kg per day subcutaneously daily from day 5 until absolute neutrophil count (ANC) > 1000/ul x 2 days
Other Names:
  • Filgrastim
  • Neupogen
Donor - Vaccine Generation Group
3 subcutaneous injections of myeloma protein within 10 weeks before stem cell collection. The first (week 0) second (week 2), and third injection (week 6) with Id-KLH (Anti-idiotype-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) (0.5 mg subcutaneous day 1) and Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (250 mcg/m^2 subcutaneous on days 1-4). Stem cell collection is 4 weeks after the third vaccination.
Drug: Myeloma Immunoglobulin Idiotype Vaccine
3 subcutaneous (SC) injections of myeloma protein within 10 weeks before stem cell collection the first (week 0), second (week 2), and third injection (week 6) with Id-KLH (0.5 mg SC day 1)
Drug: Bortezomib
Induction chemotherapy: 1.3 mg/m^2 bolus intravenous injection twice weekly for 2 weeks (days 1, 4, 8, 11) followed by 10 day rest period (day 12-21)
Other Names:
  • Velcade
  • PS341
Biological: GMCSF (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor)
250 mcg/m^2 subcutaneously every day, days 1-4

  Show Detailed Description

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA: Collection of plasma in recipient:

Patients with Immunoglobulin G (IgG) or Immunoglobulin A (IgA) multiple myeloma.

Patients have siblings.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing of recipient and donor(s) initiated.

Viral antibody screening initiated.

INCLUSION CRITERIA: Recipient:

Patients with IgG or IgA multiple myeloma.

Patients must have achieved at least a partial remission following initial conventional chemotherapy regimen or after autologous stem cell transplantation. Patients who have undergone tandem autologous stem transplants are eligible if they meet all other eligibility criteria. Patients who have achieved at least a partial remission to initial (primary) conventional chemotherapy will be encouraged to proceed to autologous transplantation, but will also be eligible for this protocol.

Patients 18-75 years of age. The upper age limit was chosen as it is felt that the toxicities would exceed potential benefit in this older population.

Karnofsky performance status greater than or equal to 80%.

Life expectancy greater than 6 months.

Left ventricular ejection fraction has to be greater than 50% by either multi-gated acquisition scan (MUGA) or 2-D echo.

Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) greater than 50% of the expected value when corrected for hemoglobin (Hb)(96).

Creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 mg/dl and a creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 50 ml/min.

Direct bilirubin less than or equal to 2.0 mg/dl serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) less than 4x top normal.

M-protein: the concentration in the harvested plasma must be greater than 70% of the total Ig of the corresponding isotype.

Patients must be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative. There is the theoretical possibility that the degree of immune suppression associated with the treatment may result in progression of HIV infection. Patients may be Hepatitis B core antigen positive, but surface antigen negative and without evidence of active infection. Patients must be Hepatitis C negative.

Not pregnant or lactating. Patients of childbearing potential must use an effective method of contraception. The effects of the chemotherapy, the subsequent transplant and the medications used after the transplant are highly likely to be harmful to a fetus. The effects upon breast milk are also unknown and may potentially be harmful to the infant.

Consenting first degree relative matched at 6/6 or 5/6 HLA antigens, this may include a mismatch at the D locus.

Ability to give informed consent.

INCLUSION CRITERIA: Donor:

Age 18-75 years. As the potential cerebrovascular and cardiac complications may potentially increase with age, age 75 has been chosen arbitrarily as the upper age limit. However, if it is determined after initial accrual of patients in this upper age range that this procedure is relatively safe, the age range may be extended.

No physical contraindications to stem cell donation (i.e. severe atherosclerosis, auto-immune disease, cerebrovascular accident, active malignancy (97). Patients with severe atherosclerosis by history will receive a cardiology consult and be judged eligible on a case by case basis.

Donors must be HIV-negative, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-), and Hepatitis C antibody negative. This is to prevent the possible transmission of these infections to the recipient.

Not pregnant or lactating. Donors of childbearing potential must use an effective method of contraception. The effects of cytokine administration on a fetus are unknown and may be potentially harmful. The effects upon breast milk are also unknown and may potentially be harmful to the infant.

Normal cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) numbers as defined by Clinical Center standards.

Ability to give informed consent.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00006184

Locations
United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Claude Sportes, M.D. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Ronald Gress, M.D., Principal Investigator, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006184     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00020306
Other Study ID Numbers: 000201, 00-C-0201
Study First Received: August 23, 2000
Results First Received: December 13, 2012
Last Updated: March 24, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Immunoablative
Mobilization
Apheresis
Multiple Myeloma
IgG Multiple Myeloma
IgA Multiple Myeloma

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Blood Protein Disorders
Cardiovascular Diseases
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Hemostatic Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Paraproteinemias
Vascular Diseases
Cyclophosphamide
Cyclosporine
Cyclosporins
Doxorubicin
Etoposide
Fludarabine
Fludarabine phosphate
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes
Immunoglobulins
Lenograstim
Liposomal doxorubicin
Methotrexate
Myeloma Proteins
Prednisone
Vincristine
Abortifacient Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 21, 2014