Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) for the Prevention of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Eli Lilly and Company
AstraZeneca
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
NSABP Foundation Inc
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00003906
First received: November 1, 1999
Last updated: September 18, 2012
Last verified: September 2012
  Purpose

RATIONALE: Estrogen can stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells. Hormone therapy using raloxifene and tamoxifen may fight breast cancer by blocking the uptake of estrogen by the tumor cells.

PURPOSE: Randomized double-blinded clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of raloxifene with that of tamoxifen in preventing breast cancer in postmenopausal women.


Condition Intervention Phase
Breast Cancer
Drug: Raloxifene
Drug: Tamoxifen
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) for the Prevention of Breast Cancer

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by NSABP Foundation Inc:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence of invasive breast cancer; superiority of one of the therapies. [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to the occurance of invasive breast cancer. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Determine which of the following is true:

    1. compared to tamoxifen, raloxifene significantly reduces the incidence rate of invasive breast cancer;
    2. compared to raloxifene, tamoxifen significantly reduces the incidence rate of invasive breast cancer; or
    3. the statistical superiority of one of the treatments cannot be demonstrated and the choice of therapy should be based on benefit/risk considerations.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Effect of the study therapies on the incidence of intraductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to the occurance of DCIS or LCIS. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Effect of the study therapies on the incidence of endometrial cancer. [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to the occurance of endometrial cancer. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Effect of the study therapies on the incidence of ischemic heart disease. [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to the occurance of ischimic heart disease. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Effect of the study therapies on the incidence of fractures of the hip, spine, or Colles' fractures of the wrist. [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to the occurance of fractures of the hip, spine, or Colles' fractures of the wrist. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Effect of the study therapies on the toxicity and side effects of each therapy. [ Time Frame: Incidences of protocol defined toxicities and side effects. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Effect of the study therapies on participants' quality of life. [ Time Frame: pre-entry, every 6 months for 5 years, and then annual after 5 years following randomization. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 19747
Study Start Date: May 1999
Study Completion Date: August 2012
Primary Completion Date: December 2005 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Group 1
Tamoxifen and placebo
Drug: Tamoxifen
20 mg/day plus placebo for 5 years
Experimental: Group 2
Raloxifene and Placebo
Drug: Raloxifene
60 mg/day plus placebo for 5 years

Detailed Description:

OBJECTIVES:

  • Determine whether raloxifene is more or less effective than tamoxifen in significantly reducing the incidence rate of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
  • Evaluate the effects of tamoxifen and raloxifene on the incidence of intraductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ, endometrial cancer, ischemic heart disease, fractures of the hip and spine, or Colles' fractures of the wrist in these participants.
  • Evaluate the toxic effects of these regimens in these participants.
  • Determine the effect of these regimens on the quality of life of these participants (at selected centers). (Quality of life evaluation closed to accrual effective 5/31/01.)

OUTLINE: This is a randomized, double-blind study. Participants are stratified by age (35 to 49 vs 50 to 59 vs over 59), race (black vs white vs other), history of lobular carcinoma in situ (yes vs no), prior hysterectomy (yes vs no), and estimated absolute risk of invasive breast cancer within 5 years (using the Gail model)(less than 2.0 vs 2.0-2.9 vs 3.0-4.9 vs 5.0 or greater). Participants are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

  • Arm I: Participants receive oral tamoxifen plus placebo daily for 5 years.
  • Arm II: Participants receive oral raloxifene plus placebo daily for 5 years. Quality of life is assessed (at selected centers) at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, and 72 months. (Quality of life evaluation closed to accrual effective 5/31/01.)

Participants are followed annually after 5 years.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: Approximately 19,000 participants will be accrued for this study within 5 years.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   35 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Postmenopausal women at increased risk for developing invasive breast cancer, who meet one of the following criteria:

    • At least 12 months since spontaneous menstrual bleeding
    • Prior documented hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
    • At least 55 years of age with prior hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy
    • Age 35 to 54 with a prior hysterectomy without oophorectomy OR with a status of ovaries unknown with documented follicle-stimulating hormone level demonstrating elevation in postmenopausal range
  • Histologically confirmed lobular carcinoma in situ treated by local excision only OR a minimum projected 5 year probability of invasive breast cancer of at least 1.66%, using Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Profile
  • No clinical evidence of malignancy on physical exam within the past 180 days
  • No evidence of suspicious or malignant disease on bilateral mammogram within the past year
  • No bilateral or unilateral prophylactic mastectomy
  • No prior invasive breast cancer or intraductal carcinoma in situ
  • Hormone receptor status:

    • Not specified

PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS:

Age:

  • 35 and over

Sex:

  • Female

Menopausal status:

  • See Disease Characteristics

Performance status:

  • No restricted normal activity for a significant portion of each day

Life expectancy:

  • At least 10 years

Hematopoietic:

  • Granulocyte count at least 1,500/mm^3
  • Complete blood count and differential normal
  • Platelet count normal

Hepatic:

  • SGOT or SGPT normal
  • Bilirubin normal
  • Alkaline phosphatase normal

Renal:

  • Creatinine normal

Cardiovascular:

  • No cerebral vascular accident, transient ischemic attack, atrial fibrillation, or uncontrolled hypertension
  • No deep vein thrombosis

Pulmonary:

  • No pulmonary embolus

Other:

  • No other prior malignancy within the past 5 years except basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer or carcinoma in situ of the cervix
  • No concurrent nonmalignant disease that would preclude administration of tamoxifen or raloxifene
  • No clinical depression, psychiatric condition, or addictive disorder
  • No uncontrolled diabetes

PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY:

Biologic therapy:

  • Not specified

Chemotherapy:

  • Not specified

Endocrine therapy:

  • At least 3 months since prior estrogen or progesterone replacement therapy, oral contraceptives, androgens, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs, prolactin inhibitors, or antiandrogens
  • At least 3 months since prior tamoxifen, raloxifene, or other selective estrogen-receptor modulators of less than 3 months duration
  • Concurrent Estring allowed

Radiotherapy:

  • No prior breast radiotherapy

Surgery:

  • See Disease Characteristics

Other:

  • No prior systemic adjuvant therapy for breast cancer
  • No other participation in a cancer prevention or osteoporosis prevention study involving pharmacologic intervention(s)

    • NSABP-P-1 patients who received placebo are eligible
  • No concurrent warfarin or cholestyramine
  • Concurrent calcitonin or nonhormonal medication (e.g., cholecalciferol, fluoride, or bisphosphonates) allowed
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00003906

  Show 516 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
NSABP Foundation Inc
Eli Lilly and Company
AstraZeneca
Investigators
Study Chair: Norman Wolmark, MD NSABP Foundation Inc
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Ganz PA, Land SR, Wickerham DL, et al.: The Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR): Change in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after the end of treatment. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 25 (Suppl 18): A-1506, 2007.
Ganz PA, Land SR, Wickerham DL, et al.: The study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR): first report of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from the NSABP P-2 breast cancer prevention study. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 24 (Suppl 18): A-LBA561, 2006.
Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al.: The effects of tamoxifen versus raloxifene on the risk of developing noninvasive breast cancer in the NSABP study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. [Abstract] Breast Cancer Res Treat 100 (Suppl 1): A-33, S16, 2006.
Cronin WM, Cecchini RS, Wickerham DL, et al.: Factors associated with participant adherence in the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 26 (Suppl 15): A-6518, 2008.

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

Responsible Party: NSABP Foundation Inc
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003906     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NSABP P-2, CDR0000067081
Study First Received: November 1, 1999
Last Updated: September 18, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration
United States: Federal Government
United States: Institutional Review Board
Canada: Ethics Review Committee
Canada: Health Canada

Keywords provided by NSABP Foundation Inc:
breast cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Breast Neoplasms
Breast Diseases
Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Skin Diseases
Raloxifene
Tamoxifen
Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Estrogen Antagonists
Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 20, 2014