SWOG-9304 Chemotherapy Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Rectal Cancer That Has Been Surgically Removed

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
North Central Cancer Treatment Group
NCIC Clinical Trials Group
Cancer and Leukemia Group B
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Southwest Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00002551
First received: November 1, 1999
Last updated: April 3, 2013
Last verified: April 2013
  Purpose

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. It is not yet known which treatment regimen is more effective for rectal cancer.

PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of different regimens of combination chemotherapy plus radiation therapy in treating patients who have rectal cancer that has been surgically removed.


Condition Intervention Phase
Colorectal Cancer
Drug: fluorouracil
Drug: leucovorin calcium
Drug: levamisole hydrochloride
Radiation: radiation therapy
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Postoperative Evaluation of 5-FU by Bolus Injection vs. 5-FU by Prolonged Venous Infusion Prior to and Following Combined Prolonged Venous Infusion Plus Pelvic XRT vs. Bolus 5-FU Plus Leucovorin Plus Levamisole Prior to and Following Combined Pelvic XRT Plus Bolus 5-FU Plus Leucovorin in Patients With Rectal Cancer, Phase III

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Southwest Oncology Group:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Survival and Relapse-free survival [ Time Frame: Until death ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 1917
Study Start Date: March 1994
Study Completion Date: October 2008
Primary Completion Date: August 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Bolus 5-FU, Pelvic XRT + PVI 5-FU, Bolus 5-FU
Bolus 5-FU (fluorouracil) (500mg/m2/day on days 1-5, 29-33), Pelvic XRT + PVI 5-FU, Bolus 5-FU (450mg/m2/day for 5 days beginning 28 days after RT, for 2 cycles on days 1-5 of a 28 days cycle).
Drug: fluorouracil
See arm assignments.
Other Name: 5-FU
Radiation: radiation therapy
See arm assignments.
Experimental: PVI 5-FU+Pelvic XRT+PVI 5-FU+PVI 5-FU
5-FU (fluorouracil) 300mg/m2/day for 42 days followed by 2 week interruption, Day 57 through XRT will receive 225mg/m2/day of 5-FU followed by 1 month interruption, 4 weeks after completion of XRT 1 8wk cycle of 5-FU 300mg/m2/day.
Drug: fluorouracil
See arm assignments.
Other Name: 5-FU
Radiation: radiation therapy
See arm assignments.
Experimental: Bol 5-FU+LV+LEV+Pel XRT+Bol 5-FU+LV Bol 5-FU + LV + LEV
5-FU (fluorouracil) 425/mg/m2/day Days 1-5,29-33; LV (leucovorin calcium) 20mg/m2/day Days 1-5,29-33; LEV (levamisole hydrochloride) 150mg/day (50mg TID) for 3 days every 14 days starting after each course of 5-FU. During RT: 5-FU and LV 4 days on wk 1 and wk 5 of RT. LV 20 mg/m2/day IV bolus within 2hrs after completion of that day's radiation therapy, for four days in each cycle. Followed immediately by 5- FU 400 mg/m2/day IV bolus. Treatment will be given on days 57 - 60 and 85 - 88.Treatment post-RT-chemotherapy 28 days after completion of RT consist of 5 days of chemotherapy in 28 day cycles. 5-FU, 380 mg/m2/day on days 1 - 5 and LV given at a dose of 20 mg/m2/day on days 1 - 5 with the 5-FU given immediately after the LV. For 2 post-radiation cycles on days 1 - 5 of a 28 day cycle. Levamisole will be given orally at a dose of 150 mg/day (50 mg tid) for 3 days every 14 days during the 1st 3 days of each cycle of 5-FU, and again 14 days after starting each course of 5-FU.
Drug: fluorouracil
See arm assignments.
Other Name: 5-FU
Drug: leucovorin calcium
See arm assignments.
Other Names:
  • leucovorin
  • LV
Drug: levamisole hydrochloride
See arm assignments.
Other Name: LEV
Radiation: radiation therapy
See arm assignments.

Detailed Description:

OBJECTIVES: I. Compare the overall and relapse free survival of patients with stage II or III rectal cancer treated with one of the following three regimens: bolus injections of fluorouracil (5-FU) prior to and following pelvic irradiation plus protracted venous infusion (PVI) 5-FU radiosensitization vs PVI 5-FU prior to and following pelvic irradiation plus PVI 5-FU radiosensitization vs bolus 5-FU with leucovorin calcium and levamisole prior to and following pelvic irradiation. II. Describe relapse patterns and tolerance associated with these regimens in these patients.

OUTLINE: This is a randomized, multicenter study. Patients are stratified according to type of prior surgery (abdominoperineal resection vs anterior resection), nodal status (N0 vs N1 vs N2-3), depth of tumor invasion (T1-2 vs T3 vs T4a vs T4b), time from surgery to study entry (20-45 days vs 46-70 days), participating center, and performance status (0-1 vs 2). Patients are randomized to one of three treatment arms. Arm I: Patients receive fluorouracil (5-FU) IV on days 1-5 and 29-33. 5-FU is then given as a continuous infusion beginning on day 57 and continuing concurrently with radiotherapy for 5 weeks. Following a 28 day break from treatment patients receive 5-FU IV on days 1-5 of a 28 day course. Postradiotherapy treatment repeats for a total of 2 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Arm II: Patients receive 5-FU IV continuously on days 1-42. 5-FU and radiotherapy are then administered as in arm II. Arm III: Patients receive leucovorin calcium (CF) IV followed by 5-FU IV on days 1-5 and 29-33. Patients also receive oral levamisole twice daily on days 1-3, 15-17, 29-31, and 43-45. CF IV and 5-FU IV are then given on days 57-60 and 85-88 concurrently with radiotherapy. Following a 28 day break from treatment patients receive CF IV and 5-FU IV on days 1-5 and 29-33 and oral levamisole twice daily on days 1-3, 15-17, 29-31, and 43-45 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. All patients receive radiotherapy 5 days per week for 5 weeks starting on day 57. Patients are followed every 4 months for 2 years, then every 6 months for 4 years, and then annually until death.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 1,800 patients (600 per arm) will be accrued for this study.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Histologically proven stage II or III adenocarcinoma of the rectum Tumor extends through the bowel wall and into perirectal fat or soft tissue (TNM T3-4, N0, M0) Nodes are involved with tumor (TNM T1-4, N1-3, M0) Tumor completely resected en bloc with no gross or microscopic evidence of residual disease Circumferential (radial) margins of resected adherent tumors must be specifically documented free of disease (with the sole exception of extraperitoneal serosal margins) No evidence of metastasis No regional nodal metastases (metastases outside of the pelvis) that cannot be resected en bloc with the primary lesion No distant peritoneal metastases (metastases that are not a direct extension from the primary tumor) even if grossly resected (direct extension into another structure permitted) Abdominopelvic CT required unless: Bilirubin, SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase are within normal limits, AND Operative report describes liver as normal on exploration No tumors of colonic origin, i.e.: Lower edge of the tumor is below the peritoneal reflection or a portion of the tumor is retroperitoneally located (usually posteriorly) as defined by the surgeon at laparotomy OR Lower margin of the tumor is 12 cm or less from the anal verge by proctoscopic exam No prior history of rectal cancer No stage II or III cancers of the extrapelvic colon within the past 5 years Complete surgical resection at least 5 years prior to protocol registration allowed provided no other therapy was administered Synchronous modified stage I or IIa colorectal cancer (no nodal involvement or penetration through the muscularis propria) that has been completely resected allowed Registration between 20 and 70 days after the definitive surgical procedure required Chemotherapy must begin no later than day 70 following surgery Concurrent registration on protocol SWOG-9419 allowed for patients with adequate tissue samples

PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: Over 18 Performance status: SWOG 0-2 Hematopoietic: WBC at least 4,000/mm3 Platelet count normal Hepatic: Bilirubin no greater than 2 times upper limit of normal (ULN) SGOT no greater than 2 times ULN Alkaline phosphatase no greater than 2 times ULN Renal: Not specified Other: No chronic ulcerative colitis No other serious medical illness that would preclude protocol therapy No psychiatric condition that would preclude informed consent No noncolorectal malignancy within 5 years except: Adequately treated nonmelanomatous skin cancer Adequately treated carcinoma in situ of the cervix Not pregnant or nursing Negative pregnancy test Fertile patients must use effective contraception

PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY: Biologic therapy: No prior immunotherapy Chemotherapy: No prior chemotherapy Endocrine therapy: Not specified Radiotherapy: No prior radiotherapy Surgery: See Disease Characteristics Other: No other concurrent antineoplastic therapy

  Contacts and Locations
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00002551

  Show 37 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Southwest Oncology Group
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
North Central Cancer Treatment Group
NCIC Clinical Trials Group
Cancer and Leukemia Group B
Investigators
Study Chair: Stephen R. Smalley, MD University of Kansas
Study Chair: Al B. Benson, MD, FACP Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center
Study Chair: Jaffer A. Ajani, MD M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Study Chair: Michael J. O'Connell, MD Mayo Clinic
Study Chair: Anthony LA Fields, MD, FRCPC Cross Cancer Institute at University of Alberta
Study Chair: Robert J. Mayer, MD, FACP Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Ulrich CM, Rankin C, Holmes RS, et al.: Polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing enzymes and response to 5-fluorouracil among stage II or III rectal cancer patients (SWOG 9304). [Abstract] American Society of Clinical Oncology 2008 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, 25-27 January 2008, Orlando, FL. A-309, 2008.
Zhang W, Rankin CJ, Danenberg KD, et al.: An update of pharmacogenetic analysis of adjuvant rectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and pelvic radiation in a phase III intergroup trial (INT-0144, SWOG 9304). [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 26 (Suppl 15): A-4115, 2008.
Zhang W, Rankin C, Nagashima F, et al.: Pharmacogenetic analysis of stage II/III rectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and pelvic radiation in a phase III intergroup trial (INT-0144, SWOG 9304). [Abstract] American Society of Clinical Oncology 2008 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, 25-27 January 2008, Orlando, FL. A-300, 2008.
Smalley SR, Benedetti J, Williamson S, et al.: Intergroup 0144 - phase III trial of 5-FU based chemotherapy regimens plus radiotherapy (XRT) in postoperative adjuvant rectal cancer. Bolus 5-FU vs prolonged venous infusion (PVI) before and after XRT + PVI vs bolus 5-FU + leucovorin (LV) + levamisole (LEV) before and after XRT + bolus 5-FU + LV. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 22: A-1006, 2003.

Responsible Party: Southwest Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00002551     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000063349, SWOG-9304, CAN-NCIC-CO11, NCCTG-934751, RTOG-9403, CLB-C9491, INT-0144, U10CA032102
Study First Received: November 1, 1999
Last Updated: April 3, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by Southwest Oncology Group:
stage II rectal cancer
stage III rectal cancer
adenocarcinoma of the rectum

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Rectal Neoplasms
Colorectal Neoplasms
Intestinal Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Digestive System Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Rectal Diseases
Colonic Diseases
Fluorouracil
Levamisole
Leucovorin
Levoleucovorin
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antineoplastic Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Vitamin B Complex
Vitamins
Micronutrients
Growth Substances
Antidotes

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 22, 2014